Dr. Alberto Puig Menen is a prominent gynecologist. He specializes in Gynecologic Oncology and Breast. He is an associate at the University of Barcelona, for which he also graduated in 1973 professor.
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• More than 40 years of experience• Samaranch gynecologist Gynecological Consultation
• Associate Professor in Obstetrics and Gynecology at the University of Barcelona
• Degree in Medicine from the University of Barcelona• Specialist in Obstetrics and Gynecology
• Deputy Chief and Chief of Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology at the Hospital of the Red Cross of L'Hospitalet ...
*Translated with Google translator. We apologize for any imperfection
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Breast cancer is the growth of cells or tissue in the breasts, which can be benign or malignant nature. Any suspicion of the presence of a tumor shoulBreast cancer is the growth of cells or tissue in the breasts, which can be benign or malignant nature. Any suspicion of the presence of a tumor should make the necessary medical tests to analyze their nature. If it is cancerous tumors, depending on its size and grade it will proceed to chemotherapy, radiation or surgery to remove it. However, benign breast tumors are growths that have no carcinogenic nature. The most common are fibroadenomas, appearing especially in women under 30 years. It is related to hormonal changes in women, and not always need to be removed, since most go away on their own within two years; you can opt for surgery of benign tumors of the breast in cases of rapid increase in its size, aesthetic deformity or discomfort. Other benign tumors of the breast can be fibrocystic breast disease, adenomas, lipomas, etc.
Breast cancer is a disease that occurs when cancer cells develop in the tissues of the breast. It can affect both women and men and has a very small iBreast cancer is a disease that occurs when cancer cells develop in the tissues of the breast. It can affect both women and men and has a very small impact. There are certain factors that can influence the development of this disease, the most important of which are family history, age and unhealthy life style. The most effective prevention is early detection, so doctors recommend that women do breast self-examination regularly. Periodicals from 50 years to detect possible tumors mammograms also have to be made. Treatment of breast cancer depends on the stage of extension, as well as the patient's health, but is commonly used hormone therapy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, along with the breast cancer surgery to remove the tumor.
Gynecologic cancer is any cancer that begins in the female reproductive organs. Although we refer to them as a group, in fact each has its own sy
Gynecologic cancer is any cancer that begins in the female reproductive organs. Although we refer to them as a group, in fact each has its own symptoms and risk factors. The can get any woman, but it is known that the risk increases with age. Major gynecological cancers are cervical, ovarian and uterine cancers; less frequently, cancer of the fallopian tube and primary peritoneal. Treatment depends on various factors such as the type of cancer, its stage and location. You may be required to perform surgery to remove it gynecologic cancer, and / or radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused, generally, by infection. One cause may be lack of hygiene. But often occurs when a woman
Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused, generally, by infection. One cause may be lack of hygiene. But often occurs when a woman is breastfeeding, the skin of the nipples may crack and let the bacteria living on the skin penetrate the fatty tissue of the breast. The proliferation of bacteria produces an abscess it difficult exit milk ducts in the breast. The usual symptoms of breast inflammation include sore breasts, bloating, having a tender area and reddened, swollen glands in the armpits, fever, chills, fatigue, etc. To eliminate the infection, they are often prescribed antibiotics and analgesics for pain relief. Other recommendations are the local application of heat using wet cloths, extreme hygiene, removal of breast milk, getting enough rest and drink plenty of liquids. In any case, you can continue to breastfeed.
Cervical cancer encompasses different cancers that develop in the uterus, according to their location and pathological structure. Thus, we find: uterine sarcoma, endometrial cancer (which, in turn, may include endometrial carcinomas, sarcomas endometrial stromal, malignant mixed Mullerian tumors), cervical cancer (or cervical) and gestational trophoblastic disease. Usually it occurs when normal cells are transformed uterus and grow uncontrollably. These cancers are more common in women between 40 and 55 years. It is currently the sixth most common cancer in Spain, behind breast, lung, colorectal, endometrial and ovarian. There are risk factors associated with the incidence of cervical cancer: human papilloma virus (HPV), consumption of snuff, women with immune system weakened by the use of drugs for other diseases, women with genital herpes or oral contraceptive use . Currently there are techniques that allow highly accurate diagnose virtually all these cancers and treatment depend on each case, indicating surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
The 4D ultrasound consists in obtaining four-dimensional images per second. This will get to see the baby and moving in real time. Best 4D ultrasounds are obtained between 24 and 30 weeks gestation. Thanks to the proportion of amniotic fluid and intermediate size baby enable optimal viewing.
Amniocentesis is a test that is done during pregnancy through a puncture in the matrix to obtain a small amount of amniotic fluid, which is the sac that surrounds and protects the fetus. Subsequently, an analysis of this fluid is done to rule out genetic and chromosome problems in the baby, such as anencephaly, Down syndrome, spina bifida, Rh disease, infections and rare metabolic disorders passed down through families. Amniocentesis is usually recommended for women at risk of having a child with congenital family history anomalies with genetic disorders, among other reasons. Although the risks of the test are minor, they can include: infection or injury to the baby, spontaneous abortion, loss of amniotic fluid and vaginal bleeding.
Condyloma, or genital wart is a disease that affects the skin area around the anus or genitals. Also called genital warts that appear as small warts grow in size and are spreading to the genital area. They are usually asymptomatic and, therefore, patients do not even know they have it until later. Genital warts are caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). It is a sexually transmitted disease in 95% of cases, so it is transmitted from person to person by direct contact, although other methods of transmission.
Artificial insemination is a method of insemination in which sperm is deposited in the vagina of women through mechanical means that replace copulation, and in the near ovulation time. In this way, the sperm travel up the fallopian tubes is shortened, and therefore, there are more likely to approach the more sperm egg. The aim is to increase the chances of pregnancy in couples who have difficulty conceiving a child. The technique consists, first, to collect a semen sample which is treated in the laboratory to concentrate sperm. The doctor inserts a speculum into the vagina to see the cervix and injecting the sperm into the uterus. Usually, it's a bit painful process, and usually accompanied by ovarian stimulation techniques.
Form of reproduction in which offers medical care for contacting the egg and sperm; in humans it is used in cases that must be overcome any medical problem that prevents the couple achieve pregnancy.
Childbirth is the time when childbirth occurs by leaving the womb, when nine months of gestation are met, as a rule, although they may occur prematurely. It is considered that labor starts when irregular uterine contractions and continuously, which are progressively increased in frequency and intensity appear. Alongside contractions, physiological changes in the cervix that eventually causing delivery. The pregnant woman should be moved to a hospital where he will receive all the relevant medical care. In some cases, birth control assistance and may require the help of anesthetic drugs or oxytocin, which is used when there are complications late. The ideal form of labor is when the baby is sliding down the mother's vagina spontaneously, without mediation of instruments or complications. But in many cases assistive devices during delivery, such as forceps, holding the baby's head to force him out are required. A lot of births are by Caesarean section, which is a surgical procedure in which an incision is made in the abdomen and uterus to remove the baby when complications occur at birth.
Breast reconstruction, also known as breast augmentation, is surgery done to restore the loss of a breast, usually removed because of breast cancer. Besides the aesthetic breast reconstruction with as closely as possible and texture to the original, this operation helps the patient to recover from the shock that implies suffering from cancer. Depending on each case, different surgical techniques are recommended: with breast implants, silicone containing besides other substances that vary depending on the prosthesis; techniques using the patient's own tissues to achieve a safer and more natural, generally extracted reconstruction abdomen, buttocks or thighs; or techniques that combine the two types of reconstruction as needed. Besides, after about 3 or 4 months after surgery, when the tissue is fully desinflamado, intervention for restoration of the nipple and areola, which are aesthetically perfect is performed.
A caesarean is a surgical procedure that involves removal of the fetus through an orifice. This surgical incision can be made either in the abdomen (laparotomy) or, in the womb of the mother. The use of this technique is indicated at the possibility that a vaginal delivery would lead to medical complications. The operation is relatively safe for the mother and child but requires a longer time than vaginal birth recovery period.
Cervical cancer is one that occurs on the surface of the cervix, in the inside of the matrix, the bottom of the womb (uterus). The vast majority of cervical cancers are from the human papillomavirus (HPV). Also, other factors that can affect the appearance of this cancer: - Not be vaccinated against HPV. - Engaging in sexual intercourse at an early age. - Having multiple sexual partners. - A large number of births. ...
Cervicitis is an inflammation of the cervix caused by an infection, usually caught during sexual activity. The most common infections are chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes and genital warts. Women may not notice any symptoms affected, but usually the cervicitis increased vaginal discharge, causing pain during intercourse, burning, cystitis, abnormal vaginal bleeding (after intercourse, after menopause, between periods ), pelvic pressure or heaviness and even skin lesions around the pubic hair. If not treated in time, the infection can reach the fallopian tubes and uterus, but it is important to perform a pelvic examination at onset of symptoms. Cervicitis is usually treated with antibiotics in case of bacterial infections such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, with antivirals for herpes infections or hormone in women who have reached menopause.
Chorionic biopsy is a diagnostic method consisting in obtaining a small amount of the placenta. The chorion is the outer casing surrounding the embryo and part of the future generation placenta. Through this test can be performed and molecular studies citogéncios fetal possible to observe chromosomal aberrations, in addition to biochemical analysis to observe hereditary metabolic disorders. The techniques used or aspiration through a needle inserted through the abdominal wall or through a catheter that is filtered through the cervix, under continuous ultrasound guidance. Chorionic villus sampling should be carried out on pregnant women over 12 weeks, women of advanced maternal age over 35 years; It has been produced change in the number of chromosomes in the embryo and pregnant women who have a family of alterations in the chromosomes personal and / or.
Colposcopy is a gynecological test to visualize the cervix and identify potential injuries that can lead to cancer. During the test you can do a biopsy and even remove the injury. Colposcopy is done when a woman has an abnormal cytology cells.
Conization is a small intervention that takes place in the cervix when a possible precancerous lesion. The purpose of conization is:-Try a possible premalignant lesion of the cervix -Make a biopsy to rule out a for cervical cancer
Contraceptives prevent or reduce the chance of fertilization of women, thus preventing pregnancy and plan the best time to have a child. Currently, there are multiple types of contraception provided by oral, intravaginal and transdermal, injectable, by subcutaneous implant or physical means. Examples include the pill, the patch, the implant, the condom, vasectomy or IUD. Regarding its effectiveness, not all are classified in the same way, being abstinence and condom patches of the most reliable. The use of certain contraceptive methods such as condoms can prevent the contraction of sexually transmitted diseases.
The contraceptive ring ( also called NuvaRing) is a method of birth control that contains artificial forms of the hormones that are normally produced in the ovaries of women: estrogen and progestin. These prevent the ovary from releasing an egg during her menstrual cycle; the progestin, also helps to prevent sperm from entering the uterus, causing the mucus that exists in the cervix becomes thick. It is a flexible ring about five inches in diameter to the same woman placed inside the vagina. It is a monthly contraceptive: it must remain in the vagina for three weeks;after, retires for a week. However, keep in mind that it can produce side effects such as nausea, vaginitis or breakthrough bleeding.
Cystitis is inflammation of the urinary bladder. You can be infected or not. Its main symptoms are burning sensation during urination, a strong urge to urinate, blood in urine and discomfort in the pelvic area. Cystitis caused by a bacterial infection is usually treated with antibiotics. Cystitis is more prevalent in women because they have shorter urethra and is closer to the anus.
Endometrial polyp is a deformation which manifests itself in the uterine cavity. (Within the endometrium, the lining that covers the inside of the uterus). It may be of different size and shape, and has a slow growth, but sometimes it can occupy the entire endometrial cavity. Endometrial polyp is painless and usually does not cause problems, appearing especially in women past menopause. Signs of suspicion are: vaginal bleeding during or after menopause, excessive menstrual bleeding, heavy menstrual periods or longer than usual, cramps during or between periods, etc. Treatment or surgery for endometrial polyps usually require removal. Endometrial polyp operation is performed by hysteroscopy.
Under the term endoscopic surgery, various techniques of direct observation of the inside of a body cavity or grouped using an optical instrument (lighted tube connected to a video camera and a television monitor) that is inserted through natural orifices human body or abdominal wall, such as hysteroscopy and laparoscopy. Gynecological endoscopic surgery allows diagnosis and treatment of diseases peculiar to this field. It is a minimally invasive surgery that has meant an advance over traditional open surgery, because it is a much more reliable and accurate technique, have fewer subsequent traumas and also the aesthetic results are better.
¿Qué es una endoscopia digestiva?
Una endoscopia digestiva, conocida también como gastroscopia, es una prueba que se utiliza para diagnosticar e iniciar el tratamiento de enfermedades del aparato digestivo superior: esófago, estómago y el duodeno.
La endoscopia se lleva a cabo a través de un endoscopio que se introduce por la boca hasta que llega al intestino y permite a los especialistas observar por la cámara que se encuentra en su extremo.
A su vez, el propio endoscopio cuenta con diversos canales en su interior por el cual se pueden introducir instrumentos que dan la posibilidad de realizar a la vez otras pruebas, como por ejemplo una biopsia o llegar a hacer tratamientos, como serían la extirpación de pólipos o nódulos y la cauterización de vasos sanguíneos sangrantes.
¿En qué consiste una endoscopia?
Una endoscopia digestiva consiste principalmente en una exploración del tubo digestivo superior, es decir, estómago, esófago y duodeno a través de la introducción de un endoscopio a través de la boca. El endoscopio es un instrumento flexible con una lente y una cámara en su parte final. Las imágenes que capta en tiempo real se muestran en monitor conforme avanza el endoscopio.
Su duración gira en torno al cuarto o a la media hora, aunque en el caso de que se encuentren aspectos inesperados o se ha de tomar algún tipo de tratamiento terapéutico o biopsia.
¿Por qué se realiza una endoscopia digestiva?
Existen diversos motivos por los cuales se puede llevar a cabo una endoscopia digestiva. Son los siguientes:
Analizar problemas del esófago, tales como esofagitis, estrechamientos o tumores
Analizar problemas del estómago: gastritis, tumores y úlceras gástricas
Diagnóstico de hernia de hiato y/o de reflujo gastroesofágico
Cirrosis hepática: en estos casos pueden darse engrosamiento en las venas del estómago y del esófago, las llamadas varices esofágicas
Hematemesis: para encontrar la causa de los vómitos con sangre
Se utiliza en casos de anemias por falta de hierro y existe sospecha de que hay pérdida de sangre en el tubo digestivo
Muestras para diagnosticar celiaquías o infecciones bacterianas
Para llegar a la salida de la vía biliar del duodeno y diagnosticar enfermedades.
A su vez, la endoscopia digestiva posee otras particularidades al margen de diagnosticar problemas en el aparato digestivo, ya que se puede utilizar para fines terapéuticos en algunos casos:
Retirar cuerpos extraños que se pueden haber quedado en el intestino superior
Dilatar el esófago en el caso de que exista un estrechamiento
Extirpar pólipos del intestino
Cauterizar vasos sangrantes o ligando varices esofágicas que puedan sangrar
Preparación para una endoscopia digestiva
La endoscopia digestiva o gastroscopia no es un procedimiento que requiera una gran preparación para llevarla a cabo.
El paciente debe evitar ingerir comida o bebida durante las ocho horas anteriores al examen, así como dejar su medicación habitual salvo que el especialista indique lo contrario.
Por otro lado, salvo norma general, al paciente no se le administrará ninguna medicación antes de la prueba, aunque en ocasiones se puede aplicar un anestésico local en la garganta para reducir las posibles náuseas.
Existen también casos en los que se administrará sedación intravenosa para relajar al paciente.
¿Qué se siente durante el examen?
La gastroscopia es una prueba indolora, y apenas dura entre tres y cinco minutos. Pese a tratarse de una prueba que no es dolorosa, el paciente notará molestias mientras se introduce el endoscopio, sintiendo constantes náuseas.
Una vez terminada la exploración, el paciente sentirá molestias en su garganta, que estará entumecida. El paciente puede tener gases debido al aire ingerido, pero estos desaparecerán rápidamente.
Significado de resultados anormales
La de la endoscopia digestiva es una prueba bastante segura en la que apenas aparecen complicaciones. De hecho, las posibles complicaciones aumentan en el momento en el que el endoscopio se utiliza para aplicar algún tipo de tratamiento.
Las posibles complicaciones serían la perforación, reacciones medicamentosas, hemorragias, alteraciones cardiopulmonares…
Avances en endoscopia
Los avances tecnológicos permiten explorar vías que antaño eran imposibles, como la vía biliar o la vía pancreática. Así, gracias a esto se pueden diagnosticar y tratar problemas que antes requerían una intervención quirúrgica.
En las zonas en las que el endoscopio no llega, existe la llamada cápsula endoscópica, que se ingiere como si fuese una pastilla y trasmite imágenes del interior del aparato digestivo a un monitor sin que el paciente sienta molestia alguna.
The fertility testing is a medical protocol that aims to diagnose the causes of infertility in order to find the necessary help to get pregnant, within which can be seen assisted reproduction techniques. The study is conducted to the two partners, if they take at least a year trying to conceive a child without contraception without success. Studies generally last between one and two months, they are relatively simple and consist in finding out if the man has a sperm of normal characteristics, if the sperm reach the uterus after intercourse, if the woman has a right ovulation or the uterus and the fallopian tubes are normal. To do this, the fertility study may include tests such as transvaginal ultrasound, bacteriologías, hormonal study and hysterosalpingography, in the case of women; in the case of men, sperm count and sperm capacitation test.
The Fetal Medicine treats all diseases that originate during gestation. Much of the diseases suffered by children and adults emerge during pregnancy. The Fetal Medicine includes the diagnosis of the disease by high definition ultrasound, biopsy or amniocentesis. fetal through surgery treatment and evaluation.
Fetal surgery is the procedure performed while the fetus is in the womb of the mother. It is rare, only 1 in 1,000 pregnancies requires this type of operation. The fetal surgery can save the life of a baby who has a malformation or disease
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that infects the skin and mucous membranes in humans. There are over 100 different types, most of them harmless, but some are associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer or dysplasia (abnormal cell changes in the surface of the cervix). These are acquired through sexual contact with an infected partner, and can be low risk or high risk. The low-risk types can cause genital warts. The high-risk can cause cervical, vulva, vagina and anus cancer in women; and cancer of the penis and anus in men. It is possible that the affected person has no symptoms; in the case of women, regular Pap smears can detect changes in the cervix that may end up leading to cancer. There is no cure for HPV. The treatment of cervical dysplasia that does not go away, may include surgery to remove the abnormal tissue.
The vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) is a vaccine that protects against certain strains of this virus, which can be the cause of most cases of cervical cancer and genital warts (both men and in women). The HPV vaccine can be given from 9 years, and is recommended for children aged 11 to 12. The reason is that it is more effective if it has not had any sexual contact and also because the response to it is greater than during adulthood. Papillomavirus vaccine may have some side effects, the most common of which are: fainting, dizziness, nausea, and skin reactions in the area where the shot was given.
Hymenoplasty, also known as hymen restoration surgery is an intervention that is responsible for rebuilding the membrane of skin in the lower half of the vagina (known as hymen). This fibrous and elastic tissue tears with the first sexual penetration of women, but can also be broken by an accidental drop, shake, or even by using tampons. Generally, patients who require this type of operation to recapture the original state of the hymen for cultural or religious reasons. The surgical procedure is quite simple and involves reconstruction of the hymen by fine sutures. If there are still remnants of the original hymen restoration on it is practiced, but a section of the lining of the vaginal wall is made to build a new hymen. The stitches will fall alone and the patient can have sex after about one month.
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the union of egg and sperm artificially in the laboratory in order to obtain a suitable number of embryos to transfer to the uterus and fertilize; thus she becomes pregnant women. This procedure can solve certain cases of infertility, and is usually resorted to when other assisted reproduction techniques have failed, such as artificial insemination. Insemination of the oocytes can be performed by conventional technique or IVF using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), which is used mainly when there is a male sterility factor.
Induced abortion is the abortion that is always performed before 180 days of gestation. In the case of spontaneous abortion, embryo loss occurs before 26 weeks, when the fetus has no guarantees of survival outside the womb. In many cases, they do not require any medical or surgical intervention. Induced abortion is being done with malice aforethought and does require experts in that procedure.
What is infertility?
According to the World Health Organization, infertility is a pathology of the reproductive system that makes pregnancy impossible. Infertility affects the couple, both men and women, who can not have a child naturally. There are two types of infertility. Primary infertility, which affects couples who have not achieved a pregnancy after at least one year of sexual intercourse without contraception, and secondary infertility, in couples who have been able to get pregnant and can not now.
Symptoms and causes of infertility can vary between men and women
Symptoms of infertility
The symptoms of infertility can vary in men and women.
In women, the symptoms may be related to the menstrual cycle and ovulation. They can be abnormal menstruation, with bleeding more abundant or less than usual; irregular menses, when the number of days between each menstruation is different every month; amenorrhea, that is, absence of menstruation, and dysmenorrhea, very painful menstruations. Symptoms may also occur without regard to menstruation, these being the appearance of whitish flow in the nipples (without having any relation to breastfeeding) or pain during sexual intercourse.
In men, the symptoms of infertility related to sperm can be the presence of semen of yellow or green tonality, red or brown spots; ejaculations very odorous, thick, watery or with little amount. Also, they can witness symptoms unrelated to semen such as: changes in hair growth, alterations in sexual desire, erection problems and stiffness in the testicles.
What are the causes of infertility?
The causes of infertility common between men and women are:
Congenital defects of the reproductive system
Cancer, tumors, chemotherapeutic drugs, radiotherapy.
Excess of alcohol consumption
Scars due to sexually transmitted infections, abdominal surgery or endometriosis.
In women, infertility can arise as a result of:
Neoplasms in the cervix and / or uterus, ovarian cysts, polycystic ovarian syndrome.
Tubal ligation or reanastomosis.
In men, the causes of infertility can be:
Consumption of certain medicines, such as cimetidine, spironolactone and nitrofurantoin
Scarring due to sexually transmitted diseases, injury or surgery
Toxins in the environment
Vasectomy or failure of the vasovasostomy.
Can infertility be prevented?
As a general rule, if the infertility is genetic or caused by an illness, it can not be remedied. However, there are certain things that favor infertility that can be avoided:
Take preventive measures against Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs).
Do not consume drugs. Do not drink alcohol frequently or in excess.
Maintain good personal hygiene.
In women, go for a gynecological examination once a year once they are sexually active.
In men, wear loose underwear and avoid hot baths, saunas and radiations.
What is the treatment of infertility?
The methods to treat infertility in men and women are the taking of hormones to balance the hormonal imbalance, the use of supplements to improve fertility and the taking of antibiotics when suffering from infection. In women, undergoing minor surgery that removes blocking tissues or scarring of the fallopian tubes, uterus or pelvic area is another option. If this does not work, you can proceed to assisted reproduction techniques.
Intimate female surgery is the operation of the external female genitalia, usually of the labia minora. It is also known as ninfoplastia, mendiante different techniques can be reduced labia minora when they are larger than usual or have a (hanging or asymmetric) so even generate abnormal discomfort during sex.
An intrauterine device (IUD) is a plastic or metal T-shaped the gynecologist placed in the uterus of women. It is one of the most effective methods to prevent pregnancy. Once in place, it stays within the uterine cavity until it ask the doctor to remove it, and has a cord attached to the end so that women can make sure the device is in place in each period. What the IUD is to prevent sperm from getting into the egg by changing the lining of the uterus. Among its advantages in addition to its effectiveness, is the fact that it is cheap, can prevent pregnancy between 5 and 10 years, it begins to work very quickly, and the woman does not feel it in your body, so it does not cause discomfort.
Laparoscopy is a surgical technique inspection of the abdominal cavity that does not require large incisions. During the laparoscopic surgical procedure, the abdomen is introduced into a laparoscope, which is a tube containing an optical system coupled to a light source. The camera allows the doctor to inspect, from a monitor, the pelvic organs and, if necessary, introduce other instruments through the same laparoscope to correct any problems. The benefits of laparoscopic surgery are numerous, so it is applied in various fields. In urology shorter hospital stay and recovery is required, there is less chance of infectious complications, decreases postoperative pain and no visible scarring. In gynecology it is used for inspection of certain diseases or gynecological processes: cysts, fibroids, hysterectomy, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, etc. Moreover, laparoscopy is used in other medical specialties and processes such as prostate cancer, the varicele or some kidney diseases.
Laparotomy or surgical exploration of the abdomen is a surgery that aims to explore the organs and structures of the lower abdomen, such as the appendix, intestines, kidneys, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, bladder, uterus, etc. It is recommended when you have not received an accurate diagnosis with medical tests such as X-rays and CT scans. The surgeon removes a sample of tissue (biopsy) for later laboratory analysis. The exploratory laparotomy, which is performed while the patient is asleep under general anesthesia, it is useful to diagnose and treat diseases such as ovarian cancer, ectopic pregnancy, endometriosis, gallstones, appendicitis, etc.
It is called menopause to the disappearance of the menstrual periods of the woman permanently, because of the arrest of the ovarian cycle. At a certain age of the woman, the average is around 50 years, the ovaries produce less amount of estrogen and progesterone, which are female hormones. After this process the woman can no longer get pregnant. In the case of men this process is called andropause, which is the loss of sexual potency due to the low levels of the testosterone hormone in the body. The menopause process can last several years.
What symptoms does it present?
Menopause has symptoms such as changes in the menstrual cycle, insomnia, vaginal dryness, mood alteration, difficulty concentrating, hot flashes, weight gain, headache and more facial hair, among others. Some of these symptoms require medical treatment. For example, the intake of bioidentical hormones or the follow-up of a diet indicated to reduce the annoying symptoms.
Causes of menopause or why it occurs
Menopause occurs due to the low production of female hormones. Sometimes surgical menopause can occur, which is when a surgical treatment causes a decrease in estrogen. On the other hand, it is important to note that there are certain drugs such as those used for chemotherapy or hormone therapy for breast cancer that can cause menopause.
Can it be prevented?
Menopause is a part of a woman's natural development and can not be prevented. What you can do is take into account certain care to reduce the risk of long-term problems such as osteoporosis and heart disease. It is important not to smoke, exercise regularly, ingest calcium and vitamin D and control blood pressure and cholesterol.
What is the treatment?
The treatment may be a change in lifestyle or hormone therapy. The application of one or the other depends on many factors such as the severity of the symptoms, the general health and the preferences of the patient.
Fibroids are a series of benign (ie, noncancerous) of variable size that develop in the muscular wall of the uterus. Generally, women with these tumors do not suffer any symptoms, it is usually detected when the relevant medical examinations are performed. In cases where symptoms occur, they usually are: heavy menstrual bleeding and more durable than usual, bleeding between periods, pelvic cramps, heaviness in the lower pelvic area and legs ... The treatment or surgery Fibroids can range from oral contraceptives to help control heavy periods, to NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen for cramps or pain. In severe cases, treatment requires removal of fibroids.
Natural childbirth is a way to give birth without the help of drugs, including the epidural. Some women with low risk pregnancies opt for this natural way of giving birth in order to avoid the risk that the drugs may pose.
Osteoporosis is a disease affecting bones and is caused by decreased tissue that forms both of the proteins that constitute the matrix and the structure of the mineral salts containing calcium. Following a skeletal demineralization that leaves brittle and susceptible to fractures and microfractures bones occurs. This condition occurs mostly in women, amenorrheic or postmenupáusicas due to decreased estrogen production by the ovaries and other hormonal deficiencies.
The ovarian cyst is a sac or pouch filled with liquid that forms in the ovary or on it. The most common are functional cysts, which are formed as a result of ovulation, which are divided into follicular cysts, when the follicle does not open to release the egg; corpus luteum cysts, if the follicle that held the egg is sealed after release. Usually, no specific treatment is necessary since they produce mild symptoms and disappear on their own in about 6 or 7 weeks. In addition, the cysts are common in women of childbearing age, and are usually benign, but can also be malignant or cancerous. In many cases it may require treatment by surgery adequate ovarian cysts: in benign can only remove ovarian area becomes ill, through a laparoscopic intervention ovarian cyst; however, in the case of malignant cysts, often requires removing the entire ovary.
Ovarian stimulation is used to increase the number of eggs in women who want to undergo assisted reproduction technique, either by artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization, because they have difficulty getting pregnant. The treatment involves placing a subcutaneous injection of a hormone prepared daily from the third day of the menstrual cycle. On the fourth day begins tracking the number and size of follicles (where the eggs will develop future) by vaginal ultrasound to determine the best day for the egg retrieval. Oocytes are extracted for several cycles to fertilize and then implanting the embryo in the uterus. Ovarian stimulation may increase the risk of a multiple pregnancy. Meanwhile, intercourse is usually applied directed, a treatment that involves sex on your most fertile days.
The pelvic floor is the set of muscles and ligaments surrounding the abdominal cavity at its bottom. Holding all the pelvic organs (bladder and urethra, uterus and vagina, and rectum) and ensure their normal operation.
The pelvic floor is dynamic, adapting to our movement while still maintaining adequate voltage to hold the organs inside the pelvis. When the pelvic floor is weakened, as problems that can affect urine leakage, discomfort, pain and even the fall of the abdominal organs arise.
What is pelvic floor reconstructive surgery?
Reconstructive surgery of the pelvic floor is a surgical intervention oriented to the repositioning of the internal organs of the female genital tract.
Reconstructive surgery of the pelvic floor can be performed in different ways: via vaginal, abdominal, laparoscopic or by combining the previous ones
Why is it done?
The objective of pelvic floor reconstructive surgery is to position the pelvic structures in order to correct urinary and / or faecal incontinence, pelvic pathologies and pelvic symptoms, as well as to protect sexual function.
What does it consist of?
Pelvic floor reconstruction surgery is performed to hold the internal organs of the female pelvis: uterus, bladder and rectum. This procedure is performed with a polypropylene mesh, so that genital problems are corrected. It can be performed in different ways: vaginal, abdominal, laparoscopic (minimally invasive) or by combining the previous ones. The most usual way to do it is through the vaginal route.
Preparation for pelvic floor reconstructive surgery
The best option for the patient before facing pelvic floor surgery is to undergo a vaginal physiotherapy treatment, in order to strengthen the musculature of the area for the intervention.
Care after the intervention
Being a minimally invasive surgery, recovery is faster and better with less time in the operating room. Patients can return to their daily life a week after having undergone the operation.
Pelvic pain features occur in the lower abdomen as both intermittent steadily. Pelvic pain in women can occur during menstruation or during intercourse. It may be a sign that there is a problem in the pelvic organs such as the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes or the vagina. To discover the cause of the pain suffered by the patient, several clinical tests must be performed, and the treatment of pelvic pain depends on the results. Women may also experience an infection of the lining of the uterus, fallopian tubes or ovaries called pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which is caused by bacteria that cause chlamydia and gonorrhea.
The polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition that occurs when there is an imbalance in the female ovaries or adrenal glands so they produce more male hormones than normal. The result is the development of cysts (tiny fluid-filled balloons) in the ovaries. Women can develop the syndrome during the teen years or reproductive age, being more common in obese women. Although sometimes no symptoms are experienced, it is common irregular, infrequent or absent menstrual periods are given. Other effects may include infertility, pelvic pain, excess hair on the face, chest, abdomen and fingers, hair loss or weak hair, acne, oily skin or dandruff. Birth control pills can help regulate the period and reduce male hormone levels, so treatment usually polycystic ovaries. When the ovaries produce multiple small cysts (no more than 1 cm in diameter), we speak of " micropoliquísticos ovaries syndrome ", which usually have the same symptoms. Likewise, treatment of micropoliquísticos ovaries may also be based on the administration of the contraceptive pill.
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is a technique used in IVF treatments for selecting embryos to avoid genetic and chromosomal diseases. Under Spanish law, this technique is authorized for the detection of serious hereditary diseases, early onset and for which there is still no cure. In these cases, preimplantation diagnosis can select from eggs fertilized embryo gene that free of the disease before being transferred to the uterus. The diagnosis is made based on the analysis of single cell embryo to determine whether or not carrying a particular gene mutation, and select or dismiss it for implantation. Thus, it improves the chances of success of IVF treatments and the risk of abortion is reduced.
Premenstrual syndrome is a cluster of physical symptoms and / or mood that women may have one to two weeks before menstruation and disappear when it starts. The vast majority of women experience at least one of these symptoms: joint pain, tender and swollen breasts, migraine, acne, fatigue, constipation, irritability, hot flashes, depression, changes in mood, loss of interest in sex , etc. Sometimes they are severe enough to interfere with their normal life. There is no definitive treatment of premenstrual syndrome, but it is generally recommended to exercise regularly, take medications such as analgesics or evening primrose and follow a healthy diet (avoiding sugars, refined foods by substituting whole, reducing fat ... ).
Management of pregnancy or prenatal care is necessary for the welfare of the mother and baby. Reviews should be monthly during the first seven months of pregnancy and more frequent as you approach your due date. In each event routine tests are performed to verify the proper conduct of gestation. Some surveys are conducted only in pregnancies of risk.
Prenatal diagnosis is the set of tests to find the right training and development of the fetus. Different techniques are both invasive and noninvasive.
- Test of fetal DNA in maternal blood. From week 10 you can know the risk of Down syndrome or other abnormalities related comorsomas.
- Ultrasound. Several throughout pregnancy are performed. Three months to detect some images of markers comosomopatías and second you can diagnose possible malformations.
- Amniocentesis. Get amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus to detect chromosomal abnormalities.
Under the term "birth preparation" set of tools that are useful to prospective parents the time to prepare for the birth of a baby from the beginning of pregnancy are included. They are usually briefings in which an introduction is made to fetal development and existing medical checks, psychological aspects of pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum, the delivery operation; quarantine period after birth, breastfeeding, etc. Besides, in practical classes in preparation for childbirth, a specialized instructor Teaching the pregnant body postures and exercises that will help provide greater elasticity to the muscular structures to facilitate the birth process, and breathing and relaxation techniques that will allow greater self-control at the time of labor contractions.
The abortion of repetition is the loss of three or more consecutive pregnancies before 20 weeks of gestation. Each case must be individualized, age of the woman, the circumstances surrounding the lost or anxiety partners should be aspects to consider.
Risk pregnancy is a type of pregnancy in which there is more chance that the mother or the child have any problems. It is necessary rest and medical supervision and, in some cases it is necessary or take medication or an additional food supplement.
To be one, medium, high or very high risk pregnancy, diseases should be given the mother, the fetus or circumstances that can endanger both.
Pregnancies under 17 and over 38, obese women with abnormalities in the pelvis, with negative Rh, smoking ...
Severe anemia mother, twin pregnancy, the uterus operated unfavorable obstetrical history or women, infection, gestational diabetes, suspected fetal malformation, morbidly obese, ..
Very high risk
Multiple gestations, uterine malformations, heart disease, diabetes, cervical incontinence, restricted fetal growth, fetal malformation confirmed, placenta previa, severe preeclampsia, preterm labor, ruptured membrane.
Robotics and robotic surgery is that surgery done using robots. It is a very technologically advanced technique that allows the surgeon to perform surgical procedures in a very precise way. The surgical instrument is attached to the robot arms, and the specialist handled by remote control, ie, no need to be in the operating room in person, since you can control everything through a computer station. The robot reproduces the movements of the surgeon. The advantages of robotic surgery over traditional open surgery is that, to make minor and precise incisions, recovery time and pain associated with surgery is less.
Sexual problems can present both women and men. In women it manifests with symptoms of pain during sexual intercourse, lack of orgasm and desire or arousal problems. In men we find erectile dysfunction, reduction or loss of sexual interest, problems with ejaculation or low testosterone. In both cases, the causes can be psychological stress-related, disease, drugs, or emotional or physical problems.
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a set of different microorganisms caused by infectious diseases, which have in common that are preferably spread during sex. More than 20 known STDs, including: chlamydia and lymphogranuloma, gonorrhea, genital herpes, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), genital warts caused by human papillomavirus, syphilis and trichomoniasis. Although most STDs affect both men and women, women have the most serious health problems. Not all STDs can be cured: those that are caused by bacteria, such as chlamydia, are fought with antibiotics, but they are caused by viruses, such as genital herpes, treatment is limited to alleviate the symptoms.
Abortion spontaneous abortion or miscarriage is the loss of the embryo or fetus from natural causes or not caused intentionally. It is also known as a natural abortion, occurs or before the 20th week of pregnancy first, if later it is premature birth. Spontaneous abortion is divided into early (before 12 weeks) or late (between week 12 and 20).
The operative hysteroscopy is a clinical procedure that involves inserting an optical instrument (one lighted tube connected to a video camera and a television monitor) through the vulva and vagina which allows the doctor to look inside specialist the uterine cavity. Being a closed space, it is necessary to distend the cavity. This generally used saline. This is a minimally invasive technique to diagnose some intrauterine pathologies that could not be clearly determined with other medical tests, such as a cancer or a polyp. Surgical hysteroscopy requires general or local anesthesia, and the patient returns home the same day the surgery. The technique often produces no further complications.
Transvaginal ultrasound is a medical diagnostic technique used to examine the genitals of women, including the uterus, ovaries and cervix. Images are formed by the use of ultrasound, and the physician observes a monitor by moving a probe while going through the area. The transvaginal ultrasound is usually done during pregnancy, when abnormal findings on physical examination (such as fibroid tumors or cysts), when there is abnormal vaginal bleeding and menstrual problems, pelvic pain, certain types of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, etc. Some of the problems that can be observed are the cancer of the uterus, ovaries, vagina, and other pelvic structures, as well as other infections and congenital abnormalities.
Tubal ligation is a surgical procedure performed on women to close the fallopian tubes (tubes that connect the ovaries to the uterus). The goal is to prevent access of eggs to the tubes and the matrix, which is a permanent form of contraception. This procedure can be performed on an outpatient basis or through membership in a medical center and lasts about 30 minutes. Anesthesia may be epidural, local or general, depending on the case. Usually tubal ligation is a reversible method should permit a permeabilization to allow pregnancy. The risks are common to any surgery, including bleeding, infections and allergic reactions to drugs.
Ultrasound is a diagnostic imaging procedure that allows you to view organs and soft structures within the body. It is made using high-frequency sound waves that are emitted by a transducer that captures the echo of different amplitudes which occurs bounce off the organs. These signals, when processed by a computer, give a series of images of the tissues examined. Today may be two-dimensional, three-dimensional or 4-dimensional images. Ultrasound is a noninvasive technique, in which no radiation used and thus is used to visualize fetuses that are being formed. This procedure can differentiate clearly the shape and size of each structure within the body. In medicine it is used to see the heart, kidneys, liver and blood vessels, among other organs.
Urinary incontinence is the inability to control the bladder, which means that you can not always hold urine. It can affect anyone, but is most common in people over 50 years. Most control problems occur because the muscles that keep the bladder are too weak or too active. If they are weak, small amounts of urine to perform actions such as laughing or coughing are lost, which is known as stress incontinence. On the contrary, if they are too active, you can have an urgent need to go to the bathroom while having little urine in the bladder (urge incontinence or overactive bladder). Other causes include prostate problems and neurological damage. The treatment of urinary incontinence depends on the cause and type, but in general usually includes simple exercises, medicines and special devices. Surgery may be helpful at times.
During fetal development, the uterus is formed by two small tubes called Mullerian ducts, which are joined together to form a single larger body: the uterus. However, sometimes these tubes are not attached in the center of the pelvis, and that's when we speak of uterine malformations. The most common are: unicorne uterus (only form one side of the Mullerian ducts), double uterus (the ducts develop but fail to merge, so that the patient has double vagina) and bicornuate uterus (the part It is bifurcated above the uterus). A uterine malformation that causes no symptoms does not usually require treatment, but there is the possibility of an intervention surgery to remove uterine malformations vaginal canal or two uterine cavities gather into one, for example, and is performed by endoscopic surgery or open abdominal surgery.
Vaginal rejuvenation is a procedure that corrects mild urinary incontinence, vaginal laxity, severe vaginal dryness associated with menopause, and other aesthetic improvements in the female genitalia. Most of these treatments do not require hospital admission and can be done with a laser.
· Labiaplasty of the labia majora, reduction in size.
· Laser Perineoplasty
· Hymenoplasty (Hymenoplasty restoration)
Vaginismus is a sexual problem in which the muscles around the vagina contract. It is an involuntary spasm makes the vagina closed. In most cases, the causes of vaginismus are psychological (lack of sexual information, fear of pregnancy, traumatic esperiencias). It can also be caused by trauma due to sexual abuse in the past or a history of discomfort with sexual intercourse. Given the variety of factors that cause vaginismus, such as physical and / or psychological treatment it will depend on what the main cause. It either case, it is desirable that the vaginismus treatment both physically and psychologically and therefore should combine sexual Education with pelvic relaxation exercises. Also, vaginal dilation exercises under the direction of a sex therapist recommended.
Vaginitis is a vaginal inflammation, usually due to an infection. The causes may be chemical or traumatic. Chemical due to the use of some creams or aggressive soaps near the vagina or urethra. Traumatic or external causes that cause inflammation of the vagina can range from sexual intercourse without sufficient lubrication or too aggressive, or practice sports without the necessary clothing. Sometimes, symptoms may go unnoticed, but usually present an abnormally excessive secretion, burning, painful urination, intercourse discomfort and irritation in the vulva and vagina. Treatment of vaginitis may be a cream or gel which is introduced into the vagina. Anyway, even if symptoms disappear, the infection may still be dormant.
Vaginoplasty is a vaginal rejuvenation surgery aimed to correct the loosening of the tissues of the vaginal canal and restore tone and contractility of the vaginal muscles. The surgical procedure involves closing the muscles around the vagina that are distended or deformed, and are responsible for giving strength to the vaginal walls, while improving elasticity and control of the vulva. The results of this operation are usually highly satisfactory since a tighter vagina and stronger without leaving visible scars in the pelvic floor is obtained. Moreover, in many cases satisfying sex affected by this type of malformations is improved.
Thrush is an infection caused by the fungus Candida, the most common is Candida albicans. It is found in small amounts in the vagina, mouth, digestive tract and skin, often without causing infection. However, the amount of Candida albicans may increase leading to a yeast infection. Most women have a yeast infection throughout their lives.
The causes of candidiasis are:
-Be Taking antibiotics used to treat other types of infections.
- Thrush is not spread through sexual contact. But some men may have a rash on the penis after sexual contact.
Source: All information contained on this page as well as office hours available, are provided directly by the doctor who has the ability to update them at all times in order to keep the information as accurate as possible.
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