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Robotics and robotic surgery is that surgery done using robots. It is a very technologically advanced technique that allows the surgeon to perfor
Robotics and robotic surgery is that surgery done using robots. It is a very technologically advanced technique that allows the surgeon to perform surgical procedures in a very precise way. The surgical instrument is attached to the robot arms, and the specialist handled by remote control, ie, no need to be in the operating room in person, since you can control everything through a computer station. The robot reproduces the movements of the surgeon. The advantages of robotic surgery over traditional open surgery is that, to make minor and precise incisions, recovery time and pain associated with surgery is less.
During fetal development, the uterus is formed by two small tubes called Mullerian ducts, which are joined together to form a single larger body: the During fetal development, the uterus is formed by two small tubes called Mullerian ducts, which are joined together to form a single larger body: the uterus. However, sometimes these tubes are not attached in the center of the pelvis, and that's when we speak of uterine malformations. The most common are: unicorne uterus (only form one side of the Mullerian ducts), double uterus (the ducts develop but fail to merge, so that the patient has double vagina) and bicornuate uterus (the part It is bifurcated above the uterus). A uterine malformation that causes no symptoms does not usually require treatment, but there is the possibility of an intervention surgery to remove uterine malformations vaginal canal or two uterine cavities gather into one, for example, and is performed by endoscopic surgery or open abdominal surgery.
Amniocentesis is a test that is done during pregnancy through a puncture in the matrix to obtain a small amount of amniotic fluid, which is the sac thAmniocentesis is a test that is done during pregnancy through a puncture in the matrix to obtain a small amount of amniotic fluid, which is the sac that surrounds and protects the fetus. Subsequently, an analysis of this fluid is done to rule out genetic and chromosome problems in the baby, such as anencephaly, Down syndrome, spina bifida, Rh disease, infections and rare metabolic disorders passed down through families. Amniocentesis is usually recommended for women at risk of having a child with congenital family history anomalies with genetic disorders, among other reasons. Although the risks of the test are minor, they can include: infection or injury to the baby, spontaneous abortion, loss of amniotic fluid and vaginal bleeding.
Condyloma, or genital wart is a disease that affects the skin area around the anus or genitals. Also called genital warts that appear as small warts grow in size and are spreading to the genital area. They are usually asymptomatic and, therefore, patients do not even know they have it until later. Genital warts are caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). It is a sexually transmitted disease in 95% of cases, so it is transmitted from person to person by direct contact, although other methods of transmission.
Childbirth is the time when childbirth occurs by leaving the womb, when nine months of gestation are met, as a rule, although they may occur prematurely. It is considered that labor starts when irregular uterine contractions and continuously, which are progressively increased in frequency and intensity appear. Alongside contractions, physiological changes in the cervix that eventually causing delivery. The pregnant woman should be moved to a hospital where he will receive all the relevant medical care. In some cases, birth control assistance and may require the help of anesthetic drugs or oxytocin, which is used when there are complications late. The ideal form of labor is when the baby is sliding down the mother's vagina spontaneously, without mediation of instruments or complications. But in many cases assistive devices during delivery, such as forceps, holding the baby's head to force him out are required. A lot of births are by Caesarean section, which is a surgical procedure in which an incision is made in the abdomen and uterus to remove the baby when complications occur at birth.
Contraceptives prevent or reduce the chance of fertilization of women, thus preventing pregnancy and plan the best time to have a child. Currently, there are multiple types of contraception provided by oral, intravaginal and transdermal, injectable, by subcutaneous implant or physical means. Examples include the pill, the patch, the implant, the condom, vasectomy or IUD. Regarding its effectiveness, not all are classified in the same way, being abstinence and condom patches of the most reliable. The use of certain contraceptive methods such as condoms can prevent the contraction of sexually transmitted diseases.
The contraceptive ring ( also called NuvaRing) is a method of birth control that contains artificial forms of the hormones that are normally produced in the ovaries of women: estrogen and progestin. These prevent the ovary from releasing an egg during her menstrual cycle; the progestin, also helps to prevent sperm from entering the uterus, causing the mucus that exists in the cervix becomes thick. It is a flexible ring about five inches in diameter to the same woman placed inside the vagina. It is a monthly contraceptive: it must remain in the vagina for three weeks;after, retires for a week. However, keep in mind that it can produce side effects such as nausea, vaginitis or breakthrough bleeding.
Cystitis is inflammation of the urinary bladder. You can be infected or not. Its main symptoms are burning sensation during urination, a strong urge to urinate, blood in urine and discomfort in the pelvic area. Cystitis caused by a bacterial infection is usually treated with antibiotics. Cystitis is more prevalent in women because they have shorter urethra and is closer to the anus.
Endometrial polyp is a deformation which manifests itself in the uterine cavity. (Within the endometrium, the lining that covers the inside of the uterus). It may be of different size and shape, and has a slow growth, but sometimes it can occupy the entire endometrial cavity. Endometrial polyp is painless and usually does not cause problems, appearing especially in women past menopause. Signs of suspicion are: vaginal bleeding during or after menopause, excessive menstrual bleeding, heavy menstrual periods or longer than usual, cramps during or between periods, etc. Treatment or surgery for endometrial polyps usually require removal. Endometrial polyp operation is performed by hysteroscopy.
Under the term endoscopic surgery, various techniques of direct observation of the inside of a body cavity or grouped using an optical instrument (lighted tube connected to a video camera and a television monitor) that is inserted through natural orifices human body or abdominal wall, such as hysteroscopy and laparoscopy. Gynecological endoscopic surgery allows diagnosis and treatment of diseases peculiar to this field. It is a minimally invasive surgery that has meant an advance over traditional open surgery, because it is a much more reliable and accurate technique, have fewer subsequent traumas and also the aesthetic results are better.
The fertility testing is a medical protocol that aims to diagnose the causes of infertility in order to find the necessary help to get pregnant, within which can be seen assisted reproduction techniques. The study is conducted to the two partners, if they take at least a year trying to conceive a child without contraception without success. Studies generally last between one and two months, they are relatively simple and consist in finding out if the man has a sperm of normal characteristics, if the sperm reach the uterus after intercourse, if the woman has a right ovulation or the uterus and the fallopian tubes are normal. To do this, the fertility study may include tests such as transvaginal ultrasound, bacteriologías, hormonal study and hysterosalpingography, in the case of women; in the case of men, sperm count and sperm capacitation test.
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that infects the skin and mucous membranes in humans. There are over 100 different types, most of them harmless, but some are associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer or dysplasia (abnormal cell changes in the surface of the cervix). These are acquired through sexual contact with an infected partner, and can be low risk or high risk. The low-risk types can cause genital warts. The high-risk can cause cervical, vulva, vagina and anus cancer in women; and cancer of the penis and anus in men. It is possible that the affected person has no symptoms; in the case of women, regular Pap smears can detect changes in the cervix that may end up leading to cancer. There is no cure for HPV. The treatment of cervical dysplasia that does not go away, may include surgery to remove the abnormal tissue.
The vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) is a vaccine that protects against certain strains of this virus, which can be the cause of most cases of cervical cancer and genital warts (both men and in women). The HPV vaccine can be given from 9 years, and is recommended for children aged 11 to 12. The reason is that it is more effective if it has not had any sexual contact and also because the response to it is greater than during adulthood. Papillomavirus vaccine may have some side effects, the most common of which are: fainting, dizziness, nausea, and skin reactions in the area where the shot was given.
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the union of egg and sperm artificially in the laboratory in order to obtain a suitable number of embryos to transfer to the uterus and fertilize; thus she becomes pregnant women. This procedure can solve certain cases of infertility, and is usually resorted to when other assisted reproduction techniques have failed, such as artificial insemination. Insemination of the oocytes can be performed by conventional technique or IVF using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), which is used mainly when there is a male sterility factor.
What is infertility?
According to the World Health Organization, infertility is a pathology of the reproductive system that makes pregnancy impossible. Infertility affects the couple, both men and women, who can not have a child naturally. There are two types of infertility. Primary infertility, which affects couples who have not achieved a pregnancy after at least one year of sexual intercourse without contraception, and secondary infertility, in couples who have been able to get pregnant and can not now.
Symptoms and causes of infertility can vary between men and women
Symptoms of infertility
The symptoms of infertility can vary in men and women.
In women, the symptoms may be related to the menstrual cycle and ovulation. They can be abnormal menstruation, with bleeding more abundant or less than usual; irregular menses, when the number of days between each menstruation is different every month; amenorrhea, that is, absence of menstruation, and dysmenorrhea, very painful menstruations. Symptoms may also occur without regard to menstruation, these being the appearance of whitish flow in the nipples (without having any relation to breastfeeding) or pain during sexual intercourse.
In men, the symptoms of infertility related to sperm can be the presence of semen of yellow or green tonality, red or brown spots; ejaculations very odorous, thick, watery or with little amount. Also, they can witness symptoms unrelated to semen such as: changes in hair growth, alterations in sexual desire, erection problems and stiffness in the testicles.
What are the causes of infertility?
The causes of infertility common between men and women are:
Congenital defects of the reproductive system
Cancer, tumors, chemotherapeutic drugs, radiotherapy.
Excess of alcohol consumption
Scars due to sexually transmitted infections, abdominal surgery or endometriosis.
In women, infertility can arise as a result of:
Neoplasms in the cervix and / or uterus, ovarian cysts, polycystic ovarian syndrome.
Tubal ligation or reanastomosis.
In men, the causes of infertility can be:
Consumption of certain medicines, such as cimetidine, spironolactone and nitrofurantoin
Scarring due to sexually transmitted diseases, injury or surgery
Toxins in the environment
Vasectomy or failure of the vasovasostomy.
Can infertility be prevented?
As a general rule, if the infertility is genetic or caused by an illness, it can not be remedied. However, there are certain things that favor infertility that can be avoided:
Take preventive measures against Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs).
Do not consume drugs. Do not drink alcohol frequently or in excess.
Maintain good personal hygiene.
In women, go for a gynecological examination once a year once they are sexually active.
In men, wear loose underwear and avoid hot baths, saunas and radiations.
What is the treatment of infertility?
The methods to treat infertility in men and women are the taking of hormones to balance the hormonal imbalance, the use of supplements to improve fertility and the taking of antibiotics when suffering from infection. In women, undergoing minor surgery that removes blocking tissues or scarring of the fallopian tubes, uterus or pelvic area is another option. If this does not work, you can proceed to assisted reproduction techniques.
An intrauterine device (IUD) is a plastic or metal T-shaped the gynecologist placed in the uterus of women. It is one of the most effective methods to prevent pregnancy. Once in place, it stays within the uterine cavity until it ask the doctor to remove it, and has a cord attached to the end so that women can make sure the device is in place in each period. What the IUD is to prevent sperm from getting into the egg by changing the lining of the uterus. Among its advantages in addition to its effectiveness, is the fact that it is cheap, can prevent pregnancy between 5 and 10 years, it begins to work very quickly, and the woman does not feel it in your body, so it does not cause discomfort.
It is called menopause to the disappearance of the menstrual periods of the woman permanently, because of the arrest of the ovarian cycle. At a certain age of the woman, the average is around 50 years, the ovaries produce less amount of estrogen and progesterone, which are female hormones. After this process the woman can no longer get pregnant. In the case of men this process is called andropause, which is the loss of sexual potency due to the low levels of the testosterone hormone in the body. The menopause process can last several years.
What symptoms does it present?
Menopause has symptoms such as changes in the menstrual cycle, insomnia, vaginal dryness, mood alteration, difficulty concentrating, hot flashes, weight gain, headache and more facial hair, among others. Some of these symptoms require medical treatment. For example, the intake of bioidentical hormones or the follow-up of a diet indicated to reduce the annoying symptoms.
Causes of menopause or why it occurs
Menopause occurs due to the low production of female hormones. Sometimes surgical menopause can occur, which is when a surgical treatment causes a decrease in estrogen. On the other hand, it is important to note that there are certain drugs such as those used for chemotherapy or hormone therapy for breast cancer that can cause menopause.
Can it be prevented?
Menopause is a part of a woman's natural development and can not be prevented. What you can do is take into account certain care to reduce the risk of long-term problems such as osteoporosis and heart disease. It is important not to smoke, exercise regularly, ingest calcium and vitamin D and control blood pressure and cholesterol.
What is the treatment?
The treatment may be a change in lifestyle or hormone therapy. The application of one or the other depends on many factors such as the severity of the symptoms, the general health and the preferences of the patient.
Fibroids are a series of benign (ie, noncancerous) of variable size that develop in the muscular wall of the uterus. Generally, women with these tumors do not suffer any symptoms, it is usually detected when the relevant medical examinations are performed. In cases where symptoms occur, they usually are: heavy menstrual bleeding and more durable than usual, bleeding between periods, pelvic cramps, heaviness in the lower pelvic area and legs ... The treatment or surgery Fibroids can range from oral contraceptives to help control heavy periods, to NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen for cramps or pain. In severe cases, treatment requires removal of fibroids.
The ovarian cyst is a sac or pouch filled with liquid that forms in the ovary or on it. The most common are functional cysts, which are formed as a result of ovulation, which are divided into follicular cysts, when the follicle does not open to release the egg; corpus luteum cysts, if the follicle that held the egg is sealed after release. Usually, no specific treatment is necessary since they produce mild symptoms and disappear on their own in about 6 or 7 weeks. In addition, the cysts are common in women of childbearing age, and are usually benign, but can also be malignant or cancerous. In many cases it may require treatment by surgery adequate ovarian cysts: in benign can only remove ovarian area becomes ill, through a laparoscopic intervention ovarian cyst; however, in the case of malignant cysts, often requires removing the entire ovary.
The pelvic floor is the set of muscles and ligaments surrounding the abdominal cavity at its bottom. Holding all the pelvic organs (bladder and urethra, uterus and vagina, and rectum) and ensure their normal operation.
The pelvic floor is dynamic, adapting to our movement while still maintaining adequate voltage to hold the organs inside the pelvis. When the pelvic floor is weakened, as problems that can affect urine leakage, discomfort, pain and even the fall of the abdominal organs arise.
Pelvic pain features occur in the lower abdomen as both intermittent steadily. Pelvic pain in women can occur during menstruation or during intercourse. It may be a sign that there is a problem in the pelvic organs such as the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes or the vagina. To discover the cause of the pain suffered by the patient, several clinical tests must be performed, and the treatment of pelvic pain depends on the results. Women may also experience an infection of the lining of the uterus, fallopian tubes or ovaries called pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which is caused by bacteria that cause chlamydia and gonorrhea.
The polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition that occurs when there is an imbalance in the female ovaries or adrenal glands so they produce more male hormones than normal. The result is the development of cysts (tiny fluid-filled balloons) in the ovaries. Women can develop the syndrome during the teen years or reproductive age, being more common in obese women. Although sometimes no symptoms are experienced, it is common irregular, infrequent or absent menstrual periods are given. Other effects may include infertility, pelvic pain, excess hair on the face, chest, abdomen and fingers, hair loss or weak hair, acne, oily skin or dandruff. Birth control pills can help regulate the period and reduce male hormone levels, so treatment usually polycystic ovaries. When the ovaries produce multiple small cysts (no more than 1 cm in diameter), we speak of " micropoliquísticos ovaries syndrome ", which usually have the same symptoms. Likewise, treatment of micropoliquísticos ovaries may also be based on the administration of the contraceptive pill.
Premenstrual syndrome is a cluster of physical symptoms and / or mood that women may have one to two weeks before menstruation and disappear when it starts. The vast majority of women experience at least one of these symptoms: joint pain, tender and swollen breasts, migraine, acne, fatigue, constipation, irritability, hot flashes, depression, changes in mood, loss of interest in sex , etc. Sometimes they are severe enough to interfere with their normal life. There is no definitive treatment of premenstrual syndrome, but it is generally recommended to exercise regularly, take medications such as analgesics or evening primrose and follow a healthy diet (avoiding sugars, refined foods by substituting whole, reducing fat ... ).
Under the term "birth preparation" set of tools that are useful to prospective parents the time to prepare for the birth of a baby from the beginning of pregnancy are included. They are usually briefings in which an introduction is made to fetal development and existing medical checks, psychological aspects of pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum, the delivery operation; quarantine period after birth, breastfeeding, etc. Besides, in practical classes in preparation for childbirth, a specialized instructor Teaching the pregnant body postures and exercises that will help provide greater elasticity to the muscular structures to facilitate the birth process, and breathing and relaxation techniques that will allow greater self-control at the time of labor contractions.
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a set of different microorganisms caused by infectious diseases, which have in common that are preferably spread during sex. More than 20 known STDs, including: chlamydia and lymphogranuloma, gonorrhea, genital herpes, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), genital warts caused by human papillomavirus, syphilis and trichomoniasis. Although most STDs affect both men and women, women have the most serious health problems. Not all STDs can be cured: those that are caused by bacteria, such as chlamydia, are fought with antibiotics, but they are caused by viruses, such as genital herpes, treatment is limited to alleviate the symptoms.
Transvaginal ultrasound is a medical diagnostic technique used to examine the genitals of women, including the uterus, ovaries and cervix. Images are formed by the use of ultrasound, and the physician observes a monitor by moving a probe while going through the area. The transvaginal ultrasound is usually done during pregnancy, when abnormal findings on physical examination (such as fibroid tumors or cysts), when there is abnormal vaginal bleeding and menstrual problems, pelvic pain, certain types of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, etc. Some of the problems that can be observed are the cancer of the uterus, ovaries, vagina, and other pelvic structures, as well as other infections and congenital abnormalities.
Ultrasound is a diagnostic imaging procedure that allows you to view organs and soft structures within the body. It is made using high-frequency sound waves that are emitted by a transducer that captures the echo of different amplitudes which occurs bounce off the organs. These signals, when processed by a computer, give a series of images of the tissues examined. Today may be two-dimensional, three-dimensional or 4-dimensional images. Ultrasound is a noninvasive technique, in which no radiation used and thus is used to visualize fetuses that are being formed. This procedure can differentiate clearly the shape and size of each structure within the body. In medicine it is used to see the heart, kidneys, liver and blood vessels, among other organs.
Vaginitis is a vaginal inflammation, usually due to an infection. The causes may be chemical or traumatic. Chemical due to the use of some creams or aggressive soaps near the vagina or urethra. Traumatic or external causes that cause inflammation of the vagina can range from sexual intercourse without sufficient lubrication or too aggressive, or practice sports without the necessary clothing. Sometimes, symptoms may go unnoticed, but usually present an abnormally excessive secretion, burning, painful urination, intercourse discomfort and irritation in the vulva and vagina. Treatment of vaginitis may be a cream or gel which is introduced into the vagina. Anyway, even if symptoms disappear, the infection may still be dormant.
Thrush is an infection caused by the fungus Candida, the most common is Candida albicans. It is found in small amounts in the vagina, mouth, digestive tract and skin, often without causing infection. However, the amount of Candida albicans may increase leading to a yeast infection. Most women have a yeast infection throughout their lives.
The causes of candidiasis are:
-Be Taking antibiotics used to treat other types of infections.
- Thrush is not spread through sexual contact. But some men may have a rash on the penis after sexual contact.
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