• More than 40 years of experience• Gynecologist and co-director of GinePlástica Lasers, unit of Vaginal Rejuvenation of the Clinic Corachan (actuality)
• Gynecologist in private practice: gynecology and pathology of the breast (1995 - present)• Gynecologist at the Remei Clinic (news)• Responsible and coordinator of the Hysteroscopy Unit at Vall d'Hebrón Hospital (1981 - present)• Adjunct physician of the Gynecological and Endoscopic Surgery Unit of Vall d'Hebrón Hospital, with a weekly average of 20 interventions (current)• Gynecologist at Hospital Vall d'Hebrón (news)• Adjunct physician in Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Vall d'Hebrón Maternal Residence (1980 - present)• Physician co-responsible for the Hysteroscopy Unit (2005 - present)• Assistant physician of the Pelvic Floor Unit (2003 - 2005)• Responsible for the Gynecology Department of the Maternal Hospital Vall d'Hebrón (1996 - 2005)• Adjunct physician of the recently operated Hysteroscopy Unit at the Vall d'Hebrón Maternal and Child Residence (1997 - 2003)• Head of guard at the Hospital Materno-Infantil de la Residencia Sanitaria de la Vall d'Hebrón (1991 - 1998)• Assistant physician of the Mammary Pathology Unit of the Maternal and Child Hospital of the Maternity-Infant Residence of Vall d'Hebrón (1989-1995)• Deputy and head of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Service of the Hospital Comarcal de Igualada (1980 - 1994)• Adjunct physician of the Gynecological Surgery Unit at the Hospital Materno-Infantil de la Residencia Sanitaria del Vall d'Herbón (weekly average of 18 operations of abdominal and vaginal surgery, both oncology and benign pathology) (1987 - 1989)• Adjunct physician in the Obstetric and High Risk Pathology Unit at the health residence of the Hospital Materno-Infantil del Vall d'Hebrón (1981 - 1985)• Deputy and head of obstetrics and gynecology ward at Santa Fe Clinic in Sabadell (1980)• Assistant in Tocology in the ambulatory of Mataró (1980)• Assistant in Gynecology in the ambulatory of Vilafranca del Penedès (1980)• Residence via MIR in Gynecology and Obstetrics• Assistant psychiatrist at the Mental Institute of the hospital of Sant Pau i la Santa Creu (1974 - 1975) ...
• Professor of the Master of Endoscopy and Pelvic Floor of Hospital Vall d'Hebrón• Coordinator / professor of the UB Endoscopy Master, at Vall d'Hebrón Hospital, Hysteroscopy Cycle (2005 - 2011)
• Co-director of the Hysteroscopy Surgery Course (2007 - 2011)• Theoretical-practical professor of the Course of Hysteroscopic Annual Surgery (1997 - 2011)• Assistant Professor in Training Course of Resident of Breast Pathology (1995)• Responsible-guardian of practices of guard of students of 4º course of Medicine and of Rotary (1986 - 1987)• Assistant Professor in the Doctorate Courses of Pathology of Pregnancy (1985 - 1987)• Collaborator in theoretical practices in the training of residents (1986 - 1987)• Author of the paper "Gynecological Control of the Patient submitted to treatment with tamoxifen", presented in the Doctorate Course of the Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology. Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the UAB, Vall d'Hebrón Maternal and Child Hospital (2000)• Lecturer and organizing member of the Hysteroscopic Practice Course, as a surgical session surgeon, with the presentation "Instrumental and indication in diagnostic hysteroscopy", organized by the Department of Gynecology of the Vall d'Hebrón Maternal and Child Hospital (1999)• Teacher in the 1st Course of Diagnostic and Operative Hysteroscopy-Tamoxifen and Endometrial Cancer (1997) ...
• Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery (1976)• Internal student in the Service of Anesthesia and Rehabilitation of the Red Cross of Barcelona (1973 - 1974)
• Doctor residing in Obstetrics and Gynecology of Maternal Sanitary Residence of the Vall d'Hebrón of Barcelona (1976 - 1979)• Diploma of the University of Barcelona Faculty of Medicine of Mammary Pathology - Course (1990 - 1991)• Master's Degree in Mammary Pathology - Senology, by the University of Barcelona - Faculty of Medicine (1994 - 1995)• European University Diploma of Operative Endoscopy in Gynecology (1997 - 1998)• PhD Course of Aeronautical Medicine, with outstanding qualification• Doctoral Course of Surgical Technique, with remarkable qualification• Doctorate Course of Mammary Pathology, with remarkable qualification• Doctorate Course of Hemotherapy, with a remarkable qualification• Assistant to the course "Concepts of current childbirth care", in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Valle d'Hebrón Maternal Reaidence (1980)• Attendance as a full member at the Fourth Meeting of Perinatology, on Fetal Maturity, at the Sant Pau i la Santa Creu Hospital (1979)• Assistant in the Course on Tumor Pathology of Mama, organized by the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the Vall d'Hebrón Maternal Residence (1979)• Assistance to multiple courses, congresses and symposiums of the specialty, on a wide variety of fields and therapeutic approaches ...
Publications and conferences
• Author of the multimedia course of Hysteroscopy• Co-author of the practical note on Skin Suture with Retarded Resorption Material, published in the Obstetrical and Gynecological Act of Hispano-Lusitana (1979)
• Co-author of the practical note on Suture in a Single Plan of the Uterine Section of Caesarean section, published in Acta Obstétrica y Ginecología Hispano-Lusitana (1979)• Author of the Communication "Evaluation of the antepartum fetal state". Current Concepts of Childbirth Assistance in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Vall d'Hebrón Health Residence (1980)• Author of the Communication "Evaluation of fetal antepartum status in pregnant women with a history of infertility and infertility", ongoing in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vall d'Hebrón Health Residence (1984)• Joint reviews of the obstetric and high risk pathology unit of the Maternal and Child Hospital, Teaching Unit of the Autonomous University of Barcelona (1985 - 1986)• Author of the article "Clinical case thrombocytopenia and pregnancy-behavior", published in the Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (1987)• Author of the communication "Ovarian pathology in patients treated with tamoxifen for breast carcinoma" presented at the XIX Annual Meeting of the Section of Oncology and Mammary Pathology of SEGO (1996)• Author of the communication "Diagnostic hysteroscopy in asymptomatic patients treated with tamoxifen for breast cancer", presented at the XXIV Spanish Congress of Gynecology and Obstetrics (1997)• Author of the communication "Gynecological Control of Patients in Treatment with Tamoxifen for Breast Cancer", presented at the XVI National Meeting of the Prevention Section of Female Genital Cancer (1997)• Author of the communication "Gynecological control of the patient under treatment with tamoxifen", paper presented in Barcelona, organized by the Chair of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology and Preventive Medicine of the Autonomous University of Barcelona• Speaker at the 1st Catalan Exhibition of Breast Surgery at Bellvitge Hospital (1994)• Author of the paper Antiestrogens and endometrial cancer (1996)• Speaker at the 1st Interhospital Meeting on Breast Cancer Research Lines, Hospital de Las Palmas (1997)• Speaker at the 1st Interhospital Meeting on Long-Term Therapeutic Attitude in Endometriosis (1997)• Lecturer at the XXV Congress Sego-Zaragoza, on Versapoint, hysteroscopic instrument extirpation endometrial polyps by ambulatory (1999)• Speaker at the National Congress of Gynecological Endoscopy, on Complications and Limits of Diagnostic Hysteroscopy, Pharmacological Preparation of the Cervix (2001)• Speaker at numerous congresses of the specialty ...
• Partner of the Medical Academy of Catalonia and Balearic Islands• Member of the Catalan Society of Cardiologists
• Partner of the Spanish Society of Senology• Partner of the Spanish Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics• Partner of the SEGO Endorsement Section• Partner of the SEGO Ultrasound Section ...
*Translated with Google translator. We apologize for any imperfection
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The benign pathologies of the breast encompass a wide range of situations that can cause pain in the breast, palpable tumor or nipple discharge. The mThe benign pathologies of the breast encompass a wide range of situations that can cause pain in the breast, palpable tumor or nipple discharge. The most frequent cause is the fibrocystic alteration of the breast, which occurs in approximately 60% of premenopausal women. It is the hormones that regulate the growth of the breast, its maturation and tissue differentiation, so they can influence the development of benign diseases of the breast.
Under the term endoscopic surgery, various techniques of direct observation of the inside of a body cavity or grouped using an optical instrument (ligUnder the term endoscopic surgery, various techniques of direct observation of the inside of a body cavity or grouped using an optical instrument (lighted tube connected to a video camera and a television monitor) that is inserted through natural orifices human body or abdominal wall, such as hysteroscopy and laparoscopy. Gynecological endoscopic surgery allows diagnosis and treatment of diseases peculiar to this field. It is a minimally invasive surgery that has meant an advance over traditional open surgery, because it is a much more reliable and accurate technique, have fewer subsequent traumas and also the aesthetic results are better.
The gynecological examination involves the examination by a gynecologist and a series of tests to determine the status of the female reproductive systThe gynecological examination involves the examination by a gynecologist and a series of tests to determine the status of the female reproductive system. The first control is advisable to carry out between 13 and 15 years of age, when the body of the woman is in the process of development. During the first gynecological visit you may perform a physical examination or not. The tests also will depending on the age of the patient, if you have had sex or have problems with menstruation or pain or symptoms of infection. The study of the patient can be performed through a pelvic exam, a Pap test, ultrasounds or revision breast. Maintain good sexual health and normal control women can prevent the development of certain diseases in the future.
The pelvic floor is the set of muscles and ligaments surrounding the abdominal cavity at its bottom. Holding all the pelvic organs (bladder and urethrThe pelvic floor is the set of muscles and ligaments surrounding the abdominal cavity at its bottom. Holding all the pelvic organs (bladder and urethra, uterus and vagina, and rectum) and ensure their normal operation.
The pelvic floor is dynamic, adapting to our movement while still maintaining adequate voltage to hold the organs inside the pelvis. When the pelvic floor is weakened, as problems that can affect urine leakage, discomfort, pain and even the fall of the abdominal organs arise.
The operative hysteroscopy is a clinical procedure that involves inserting an optical instrument (one lighted tube connected to a video camera and a television monitor) through the vulva and vagina which allows the doctor to look inside specialist the uterine cavity. Being a closed space, it is necessary to distend the cavity. This generally used saline. This is a minimally invasive technique to diagnose some intrauterine pathologies that could not be clearly determined with other medical tests, such as a cancer or a polyp. Surgical hysteroscopy requires general or local anesthesia, and the patient returns home the same day the surgery. The technique often produces no further complications.
Urinary incontinence is the inability to control the bladder, which means that you can not always hold urine. It can affect anyone, but is most common in people over 50 years. Most control problems occur because the muscles that keep the bladder are too weak or too active. If they are weak, small amounts of urine to perform actions such as laughing or coughing are lost, which is known as stress incontinence. On the contrary, if they are too active, you can have an urgent need to go to the bathroom while having little urine in the bladder (urge incontinence or overactive bladder). Other causes include prostate problems and neurological damage. The treatment of urinary incontinence depends on the cause and type, but in general usually includes simple exercises, medicines and special devices. Surgery may be helpful at times.
Vaginal rejuvenation is a procedure that corrects mild urinary incontinence, vaginal laxity, severe vaginal dryness associated with menopause, and other aesthetic improvements in the female genitalia. Most of these treatments do not require hospital admission and can be done with a laser.
· Labiaplasty of the labia majora, reduction in size.
· Laser Perineoplasty
· Hymenoplasty (Hymenoplasty restoration)
Amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual cycle. This is divided into primary, when the woman does not have menstrual cycle to 16 years, or secondary, when the menstrual cycle is aborted in response to a regular phase. Women who have eating disorders or undergoing intensive training programs have increased risk of amenorrhea. Amenorrhea naturally during lactation, menopause and pregnancy but can also be caused by certain medications, hormonal disorders, weight problems and stress.
Amniocentesis is a test that is done during pregnancy through a puncture in the matrix to obtain a small amount of amniotic fluid, which is the sac that surrounds and protects the fetus. Subsequently, an analysis of this fluid is done to rule out genetic and chromosome problems in the baby, such as anencephaly, Down syndrome, spina bifida, Rh disease, infections and rare metabolic disorders passed down through families. Amniocentesis is usually recommended for women at risk of having a child with congenital family history anomalies with genetic disorders, among other reasons. Although the risks of the test are minor, they can include: infection or injury to the baby, spontaneous abortion, loss of amniotic fluid and vaginal bleeding.
Artificial insemination is a method of insemination in which sperm is deposited in the vagina of women through mechanical means that replace copulation, and in the near ovulation time. In this way, the sperm travel up the fallopian tubes is shortened, and therefore, there are more likely to approach the more sperm egg. The aim is to increase the chances of pregnancy in couples who have difficulty conceiving a child. The technique consists, first, to collect a semen sample which is treated in the laboratory to concentrate sperm. The doctor inserts a speculum into the vagina to see the cervix and injecting the sperm into the uterus. Usually, it's a bit painful process, and usually accompanied by ovarian stimulation techniques.
Childbirth is the time when childbirth occurs by leaving the womb, when nine months of gestation are met, as a rule, although they may occur prematurely. It is considered that labor starts when irregular uterine contractions and continuously, which are progressively increased in frequency and intensity appear. Alongside contractions, physiological changes in the cervix that eventually causing delivery. The pregnant woman should be moved to a hospital where he will receive all the relevant medical care. In some cases, birth control assistance and may require the help of anesthetic drugs or oxytocin, which is used when there are complications late. The ideal form of labor is when the baby is sliding down the mother's vagina spontaneously, without mediation of instruments or complications. But in many cases assistive devices during delivery, such as forceps, holding the baby's head to force him out are required. A lot of births are by Caesarean section, which is a surgical procedure in which an incision is made in the abdomen and uterus to remove the baby when complications occur at birth.
The breakthrough bleeding is vaginal bleeding that occurs between monthly menstrual periods a woman. The causes of this condition may include: uterine fibroids, spontaneous abortion, ectopic pregnancy, underactive thyroid cancer or precancer uterinero or neck of the uterus and stress. The best way to determine the cause is undergoing a gynecological exam.
Breast cancer is a disease that occurs when cancer cells develop in the tissues of the breast. It can affect both women and men and has a very small impact. There are certain factors that can influence the development of this disease, the most important of which are family history, age and unhealthy life style. The most effective prevention is early detection, so doctors recommend that women do breast self-examination regularly. Periodicals from 50 years to detect possible tumors mammograms also have to be made. Treatment of breast cancer depends on the stage of extension, as well as the patient's health, but is commonly used hormone therapy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, along with the breast cancer surgery to remove the tumor.
A caesarean is a surgical procedure that involves removal of the fetus through an orifice. This surgical incision can be made either in the abdomen (laparotomy) or, in the womb of the mother. The use of this technique is indicated at the possibility that a vaginal delivery would lead to medical complications. The operation is relatively safe for the mother and child but requires a longer time than vaginal birth recovery period.
Congenital malformations are defects in the baby's body that develop during pregnancy. Thanks to advances in medicine birth defects occur very rarely, only 15 of every 1,000 newborns in Spain. Most of these malformations are of unknown origin but may be caused by genetic abnormalities, drug consumption, maternal age, diseases that the mother has during pregnancy and even food that keeps during pregnancy.
The contraceptive ring ( also called NuvaRing) is a method of birth control that contains artificial forms of the hormones that are normally produced in the ovaries of women: estrogen and progestin. These prevent the ovary from releasing an egg during her menstrual cycle; the progestin, also helps to prevent sperm from entering the uterus, causing the mucus that exists in the cervix becomes thick. It is a flexible ring about five inches in diameter to the same woman placed inside the vagina. It is a monthly contraceptive: it must remain in the vagina for three weeks;after, retires for a week. However, keep in mind that it can produce side effects such as nausea, vaginitis or breakthrough bleeding.
Cystitis is inflammation of the urinary bladder. You can be infected or not. Its main symptoms are burning sensation during urination, a strong urge to urinate, blood in urine and discomfort in the pelvic area. Cystitis caused by a bacterial infection is usually treated with antibiotics. Cystitis is more prevalent in women because they have shorter urethra and is closer to the anus.
The Pap test, also called a Pap test is a test performed on patients aged 21 years and in order to detect cervical cancer or precancerous lesions. Cells taken from scraping performed at the opening of the cervix is examined under a microscope. It is important to note the specialist if you are taking any medication at the time, as they may cause an alteration in the test results, plus if you might be pregnant and if you have previously had an abnormal Pap smear. During the 24 hours before the exam the patient should not be done douching, having sex or use tampons. It should also urinate before control and avoid scheduling a visit if you are taking the period menstruating, because blood can make the results less accurate at that time. During scraping sensation of pain will have minimal or some similar to menstrual discomfort.
Ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg implants outside the uterus. It is a serious but rare problem. Symptoms such as abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, náusas and dizziness. If caught early embryo can be placed by laparoscopic surgery, if the pregnancy has grown too can rupture the fallopian knotweed, it requires immediate surgery. ...
Egg donation, egg donation also called, is the process of delivering anonymous, altruistic and selfless egg in order to help women who wish to have a child and can not process for different reasons. The requirements are to contribute between 18 and 34, have health conditions healthy without having any sexually or inheritance and have legal authority to grant permission. Before performing this procedure, the patient must pass a medical examination to assess the state of physical health with a medical review that takes into account family history and a gynecological examination, and psychological.
Endometriosis is the presence and self-functional growth of the endometrium (the mucous membrane that lines the uterus) in an abnormal location; usually in the ovaries, behind the uterus, bowel or bladder. Although many women have no symptoms, this displaced tissue can cause pain, very heavy periods and pain during intercourse. The first sign may be the difficulty in achieving a pregnancy. Regarding the treatment of endometriosis or surgery will depend on the patient, in cases where it is not widespread, the doctor may prescribe pain medication to relieve pain, or drugs regulating hormones and birth control pills; in cases that present more complications, endometriosis operation, which aims to remove the endometrial tissue is practiced by places has spread
¿Qué es una endoscopia digestiva?
Una endoscopia digestiva, conocida también como gastroscopia, es una prueba que se utiliza para diagnosticar e iniciar el tratamiento de enfermedades del aparato digestivo superior: esófago, estómago y el duodeno.
La endoscopia se lleva a cabo a través de un endoscopio que se introduce por la boca hasta que llega al intestino y permite a los especialistas observar por la cámara que se encuentra en su extremo.
A su vez, el propio endoscopio cuenta con diversos canales en su interior por el cual se pueden introducir instrumentos que dan la posibilidad de realizar a la vez otras pruebas, como por ejemplo una biopsia o llegar a hacer tratamientos, como serían la extirpación de pólipos o nódulos y la cauterización de vasos sanguíneos sangrantes.
¿En qué consiste una endoscopia?
Una endoscopia digestiva consiste principalmente en una exploración del tubo digestivo superior, es decir, estómago, esófago y duodeno a través de la introducción de un endoscopio a través de la boca. El endoscopio es un instrumento flexible con una lente y una cámara en su parte final. Las imágenes que capta en tiempo real se muestran en monitor conforme avanza el endoscopio.
Su duración gira en torno al cuarto o a la media hora, aunque en el caso de que se encuentren aspectos inesperados o se ha de tomar algún tipo de tratamiento terapéutico o biopsia.
¿Por qué se realiza una endoscopia digestiva?
Existen diversos motivos por los cuales se puede llevar a cabo una endoscopia digestiva. Son los siguientes:
Analizar problemas del esófago, tales como esofagitis, estrechamientos o tumores
Analizar problemas del estómago: gastritis, tumores y úlceras gástricas
Diagnóstico de hernia de hiato y/o de reflujo gastroesofágico
Cirrosis hepática: en estos casos pueden darse engrosamiento en las venas del estómago y del esófago, las llamadas varices esofágicas
Hematemesis: para encontrar la causa de los vómitos con sangre
Se utiliza en casos de anemias por falta de hierro y existe sospecha de que hay pérdida de sangre en el tubo digestivo
Muestras para diagnosticar celiaquías o infecciones bacterianas
Para llegar a la salida de la vía biliar del duodeno y diagnosticar enfermedades.
A su vez, la endoscopia digestiva posee otras particularidades al margen de diagnosticar problemas en el aparato digestivo, ya que se puede utilizar para fines terapéuticos en algunos casos:
Retirar cuerpos extraños que se pueden haber quedado en el intestino superior
Dilatar el esófago en el caso de que exista un estrechamiento
Extirpar pólipos del intestino
Cauterizar vasos sangrantes o ligando varices esofágicas que puedan sangrar
Preparación para una endoscopia digestiva
La endoscopia digestiva o gastroscopia no es un procedimiento que requiera una gran preparación para llevarla a cabo.
El paciente debe evitar ingerir comida o bebida durante las ocho horas anteriores al examen, así como dejar su medicación habitual salvo que el especialista indique lo contrario.
Por otro lado, salvo norma general, al paciente no se le administrará ninguna medicación antes de la prueba, aunque en ocasiones se puede aplicar un anestésico local en la garganta para reducir las posibles náuseas.
Existen también casos en los que se administrará sedación intravenosa para relajar al paciente.
¿Qué se siente durante el examen?
La gastroscopia es una prueba indolora, y apenas dura entre tres y cinco minutos. Pese a tratarse de una prueba que no es dolorosa, el paciente notará molestias mientras se introduce el endoscopio, sintiendo constantes náuseas.
Una vez terminada la exploración, el paciente sentirá molestias en su garganta, que estará entumecida. El paciente puede tener gases debido al aire ingerido, pero estos desaparecerán rápidamente.
Significado de resultados anormales
La de la endoscopia digestiva es una prueba bastante segura en la que apenas aparecen complicaciones. De hecho, las posibles complicaciones aumentan en el momento en el que el endoscopio se utiliza para aplicar algún tipo de tratamiento.
Las posibles complicaciones serían la perforación, reacciones medicamentosas, hemorragias, alteraciones cardiopulmonares…
Avances en endoscopia
Los avances tecnológicos permiten explorar vías que antaño eran imposibles, como la vía biliar o la vía pancreática. Así, gracias a esto se pueden diagnosticar y tratar problemas que antes requerían una intervención quirúrgica.
En las zonas en las que el endoscopio no llega, existe la llamada cápsula endoscópica, que se ingiere como si fuese una pastilla y trasmite imágenes del interior del aparato digestivo a un monitor sin que el paciente sienta molestia alguna.
The fertility testing is a medical protocol that aims to diagnose the causes of infertility in order to find the necessary help to get pregnant, within which can be seen assisted reproduction techniques. The study is conducted to the two partners, if they take at least a year trying to conceive a child without contraception without success. Studies generally last between one and two months, they are relatively simple and consist in finding out if the man has a sperm of normal characteristics, if the sperm reach the uterus after intercourse, if the woman has a right ovulation or the uterus and the fallopian tubes are normal. To do this, the fertility study may include tests such as transvaginal ultrasound, bacteriologías, hormonal study and hysterosalpingography, in the case of women; in the case of men, sperm count and sperm capacitation test.
Fertility treatment is a technique used in osteopathy intended for those couples with problems having children. These treatments significantly increase the chances of pregnancy in families with serious problems. The head pressure in the abdominal area or in other parts of the body can be the trigger for a woman can not get pregnant. Working these increase the likelihood and can be the solution for many couples wanting to bring a child into the world.
Fetal development is the time it takes to form the fetus, from gestation to the day of birth. Gestational age is measured from the first day of the last menstrual period of the mother, since it is impossible to establish the exact day. During weeks 1 and 2 of pregnancy, the woman is not yet pregnant. Pregnancy usually lasts 37 to 41 weeks. ...
The Fetal Medicine treats all diseases that originate during gestation. Much of the diseases suffered by children and adults emerge during pregnancy. The Fetal Medicine includes the diagnosis of the disease by high definition ultrasound, biopsy or amniocentesis. fetal through surgery treatment and evaluation. ...
Genetic testing is a test used to determine whether the patient has a pathogenic gene mutation. If a person is a carrier of a specific pathogenic gene mutation, you have more options of getting the disease. This type of study is done by a blood test. Once the sample is in the laboratory, it is necessary to study the genetic material found within cells
Gynecologic cancer is any cancer that begins in the female reproductive organs. Although we refer to them as a group, in fact each has its own symptoms and risk factors. The can get any woman, but it is known that the risk increases with age. Major gynecological cancers are cervical, ovarian and uterine cancers; less frequently, cancer of the fallopian tube and primary peritoneal. Treatment depends on various factors such as the type of cancer, its stage and location. You may be required to perform surgery to remove it gynecologic cancer, and / or radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that infects the skin and mucous membranes in humans. There are over 100 different types, most of them harmless, but some are associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer or dysplasia (abnormal cell changes in the surface of the cervix). These are acquired through sexual contact with an infected partner, and can be low risk or high risk. The low-risk types can cause genital warts. The high-risk can cause cervical, vulva, vagina and anus cancer in women; and cancer of the penis and anus in men. It is possible that the affected person has no symptoms; in the case of women, regular Pap smears can detect changes in the cervix that may end up leading to cancer. There is no cure for HPV. The treatment of cervical dysplasia that does not go away, may include surgery to remove the abnormal tissue.
Hymenoplasty, also known as hymen restoration surgery is an intervention that is responsible for rebuilding the membrane of skin in the lower half of the vagina (known as hymen). This fibrous and elastic tissue tears with the first sexual penetration of women, but can also be broken by an accidental drop, shake, or even by using tampons. Generally, patients who require this type of operation to recapture the original state of the hymen for cultural or religious reasons. The surgical procedure is quite simple and involves reconstruction of the hymen by fine sutures. If there are still remnants of the original hymen restoration on it is practiced, but a section of the lining of the vaginal wall is made to build a new hymen. The stitches will fall alone and the patient can have sex after about one month.
High pressure in pregnancy should be monitored very carefully. It can cause growth retardation of the fetus or neonatal mortality. Hypertension in pregnancy can be caused by a low-fat and low in calcium, so it is necessary to have adequate nutrition. ...
Hysterectomy is the removal of the uterus or womb, cavity that can hold the baby and growth during pregnancy. It is formed by the top or uterine body (where it is the uterine cavity) and the bottom or cervix. Hysterectomy may be total, by removing both sides, or subtotal, extracting only one of these. The decision to perform a hysterectomy may result from uterine fibroids, excessive menstrual bleeding, severe endometriosis, uterine prolapse, cervical cancer, uterine body cancer or ovarian cancer, among other reasons or pathologies. There are several techniques for hysterectomy, may be vaginal (in cases of prolapse), abdominal (with transverse or longitudinal incision and for exceptional cases) or laparoscopic (minimally invasive technique most commonly used). Recovery and return to routine patient will depend on the personal evolution. However, yes it is inadvisable to drive to the pedals correctly and sex during the 40 days after surgery, as it could open the roof of the vagina sutured.
Hysterosalpingography or uterosalpingography is an X-ray of the uterus and fallopian tubes that uses a special form of X-ray, fluoroscopy, and a dye.
The uterus and tubes are filled with a contrast medium and through fluoroscopy can see internal organs in motion, assess the anatomy and functions of these.
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the union of egg and sperm artificially in the laboratory in order to obtain a suitable number of embryos to transfer to the uterus and fertilize; thus she becomes pregnant women. This procedure can solve certain cases of infertility, and is usually resorted to when other assisted reproduction techniques have failed, such as artificial insemination. Insemination of the oocytes can be performed by conventional technique or IVF using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), which is used mainly when there is a male sterility factor.
Induced abortion is the abortion that is always performed before 180 days of gestation. In the case of spontaneous abortion, embryo loss occurs before 26 weeks, when the fetus has no guarantees of survival outside the womb. In many cases, they do not require any medical or surgical intervention. Induced abortion is being done with malice aforethought and does require experts in that procedure.
What is infertility?
According to the World Health Organization, infertility is a pathology of the reproductive system that makes pregnancy impossible. Infertility affects the couple, both men and women, who can not have a child naturally. There are two types of infertility. Primary infertility, which affects couples who have not achieved a pregnancy after at least one year of sexual intercourse without contraception, and secondary infertility, in couples who have been able to get pregnant and can not now.
Symptoms and causes of infertility can vary between men and women
Symptoms of infertility
The symptoms of infertility can vary in men and women.
In women, the symptoms may be related to the menstrual cycle and ovulation. They can be abnormal menstruation, with bleeding more abundant or less than usual; irregular menses, when the number of days between each menstruation is different every month; amenorrhea, that is, absence of menstruation, and dysmenorrhea, very painful menstruations. Symptoms may also occur without regard to menstruation, these being the appearance of whitish flow in the nipples (without having any relation to breastfeeding) or pain during sexual intercourse.
In men, the symptoms of infertility related to sperm can be the presence of semen of yellow or green tonality, red or brown spots; ejaculations very odorous, thick, watery or with little amount. Also, they can witness symptoms unrelated to semen such as: changes in hair growth, alterations in sexual desire, erection problems and stiffness in the testicles.
What are the causes of infertility?
The causes of infertility common between men and women are:
Congenital defects of the reproductive system
Cancer, tumors, chemotherapeutic drugs, radiotherapy.
Excess of alcohol consumption
Scars due to sexually transmitted infections, abdominal surgery or endometriosis.
In women, infertility can arise as a result of:
Neoplasms in the cervix and / or uterus, ovarian cysts, polycystic ovarian syndrome.
Tubal ligation or reanastomosis.
In men, the causes of infertility can be:
Consumption of certain medicines, such as cimetidine, spironolactone and nitrofurantoin
Scarring due to sexually transmitted diseases, injury or surgery
Toxins in the environment
Vasectomy or failure of the vasovasostomy.
Can infertility be prevented?
As a general rule, if the infertility is genetic or caused by an illness, it can not be remedied. However, there are certain things that favor infertility that can be avoided:
Take preventive measures against Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs).
Do not consume drugs. Do not drink alcohol frequently or in excess.
Maintain good personal hygiene.
In women, go for a gynecological examination once a year once they are sexually active.
In men, wear loose underwear and avoid hot baths, saunas and radiations.
What is the treatment of infertility?
The methods to treat infertility in men and women are the taking of hormones to balance the hormonal imbalance, the use of supplements to improve fertility and the taking of antibiotics when suffering from infection. In women, undergoing minor surgery that removes blocking tissues or scarring of the fallopian tubes, uterus or pelvic area is another option. If this does not work, you can proceed to assisted reproduction techniques.
Intimate female surgery is the operation of the external female genitalia, usually of the labia minora. It is also known as ninfoplastia, mendiante different techniques can be reduced labia minora when they are larger than usual or have a (hanging or asymmetric) so even generate abnormal discomfort during sex.
An intrauterine device (IUD) is a plastic or metal T-shaped the gynecologist placed in the uterus of women. It is one of the most effective methods to prevent pregnancy. Once in place, it stays within the uterine cavity until it ask the doctor to remove it, and has a cord attached to the end so that women can make sure the device is in place in each period. What the IUD is to prevent sperm from getting into the egg by changing the lining of the uterus. Among its advantages in addition to its effectiveness, is the fact that it is cheap, can prevent pregnancy between 5 and 10 years, it begins to work very quickly, and the woman does not feel it in your body, so it does not cause discomfort.
Labiaplasty surgery is reshaping the female external genitalia. This operation corrects the labia morphological alterations or appearance of the area without changing its functionality, by implementing various appropriate to each patient and the type of malformation suffering techniques. When the labia minora are too large or have an irregular and anomalous form, reduction and correction of them is performed. Furthermore, the labioplastia also raise and reshape the labia through the application of infiltrations of hyaluronic acid or fatty tissue fillers.
Ultrasound 20 weeks or morphological ultrasound is normally done between week 19 and week 20 of pregnancy. Through this control, the doctor can examine the different structures of the fetus as the head, the chest, the shape of the spine, heart and limbs. This makes it possible to identify any problems or anomalies. ...
Multiple pregnancy is a pregnancy that develops in more than one fetus, being a result of fertilization of two or more eggs. Children who are a result of multiple pregnancies are twins, ie genetically and physically the same.
Natural childbirth is a way to give birth without the help of drugs, including the epidural. Some women with low risk pregnancies opt for this natural way of giving birth in order to avoid the risk that the drugs may pose.
Noninvasive prenatal test or DNA test can reveal fetal genetic abnormalities in a fetus through a simple test maternal blood from the tenth week of pregnancy. In recent years there has been an important alternative to invasive procedures such as amniocentesis, which can endanger the fetus. The results position it as a revolutionary technique, since they offer a 99% screening for Down syndrome (chromosome 21) and 95% for trisomy 13 and 18; no defects are detected. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis is not recommended if you have received in less than six months a blood transfusion or bone marrow transplant. Although clinical use in Spain is from a couple of years ago, still it has not been extended due to its high cost. ...
The ovarian cyst is a sac or pouch filled with liquid that forms in the ovary or on it. The most common are functional cysts, which are formed as a result of ovulation, which are divided into follicular cysts, when the follicle does not open to release the egg; corpus luteum cysts, if the follicle that held the egg is sealed after release. Usually, no specific treatment is necessary since they produce mild symptoms and disappear on their own in about 6 or 7 weeks. In addition, the cysts are common in women of childbearing age, and are usually benign, but can also be malignant or cancerous. In many cases it may require treatment by surgery adequate ovarian cysts: in benign can only remove ovarian area becomes ill, through a laparoscopic intervention ovarian cyst; however, in the case of malignant cysts, often requires removing the entire ovary.
Ovarian stimulation is used to increase the number of eggs in women who want to undergo assisted reproduction technique, either by artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization, because they have difficulty getting pregnant. The treatment involves placing a subcutaneous injection of a hormone prepared daily from the third day of the menstrual cycle. On the fourth day begins tracking the number and size of follicles (where the eggs will develop future) by vaginal ultrasound to determine the best day for the egg retrieval. Oocytes are extracted for several cycles to fertilize and then implanting the embryo in the uterus. Ovarian stimulation may increase the risk of a multiple pregnancy. Meanwhile, intercourse is usually applied directed, a treatment that involves sex on your most fertile days.
Pelvic pain features occur in the lower abdomen as both intermittent steadily. Pelvic pain in women can occur during menstruation or during intercourse. It may be a sign that there is a problem in the pelvic organs such as the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes or the vagina. To discover the cause of the pain suffered by the patient, several clinical tests must be performed, and the treatment of pelvic pain depends on the results. Women may also experience an infection of the lining of the uterus, fallopian tubes or ovaries called pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which is caused by bacteria that cause chlamydia and gonorrhea.
The polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition that occurs when there is an imbalance in the female ovaries or adrenal glands so they produce more male hormones than normal. The result is the development of cysts (tiny fluid-filled balloons) in the ovaries. Women can develop the syndrome during the teen years or reproductive age, being more common in obese women. Although sometimes no symptoms are experienced, it is common irregular, infrequent or absent menstrual periods are given. Other effects may include infertility, pelvic pain, excess hair on the face, chest, abdomen and fingers, hair loss or weak hair, acne, oily skin or dandruff. Birth control pills can help regulate the period and reduce male hormone levels, so treatment usually polycystic ovaries. When the ovaries produce multiple small cysts (no more than 1 cm in diameter), we speak of " micropoliquísticos ovaries syndrome ", which usually have the same symptoms. Likewise, treatment of micropoliquísticos ovaries may also be based on the administration of the contraceptive pill.
Preeclampsia is a condition that can occur in women during their 20th week of gestation. During this stage, the pregnant may experience high blood pressure, protein in the urine and a series of symptoms that disappear within 6 weeks after giving birth.
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is a technique used in IVF treatments for selecting embryos to avoid genetic and chromosomal diseases. Under Spanish law, this technique is authorized for the detection of serious hereditary diseases, early onset and for which there is still no cure. In these cases, preimplantation diagnosis can select from eggs fertilized embryo gene that free of the disease before being transferred to the uterus. The diagnosis is made based on the analysis of single cell embryo to determine whether or not carrying a particular gene mutation, and select or dismiss it for implantation. Thus, it improves the chances of success of IVF treatments and the risk of abortion is reduced.
Preterm birth is one that occurs with the advance of at least three weeks compared to the end of pregnancy. Preterm birth can cause different consequences for the fetus have not fully developed. The main risk factors that can cause premature labor are multiple pregnancies two closely spaced pregnancies, uterine problems, hypertension, smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. ...
Management of pregnancy or prenatal care is necessary for the welfare of the mother and baby. Reviews should be monthly during the first seven months of pregnancy and more frequent as you approach your due date. In each event routine tests are performed to verify the proper conduct of gestation. Some surveys are conducted only in pregnancies of risk.
Prenatal diagnosis is the set of tests to find the right training and development of the fetus. Different techniques are both invasive and noninvasive.
- Test of fetal DNA in maternal blood. From week 10 you can know the risk of Down syndrome or other abnormalities related comorsomas.
- Ultrasound. Several throughout pregnancy are performed. Three months to detect some images of markers comosomopatías and second you can diagnose possible malformations.
- Amniocentesis. Get amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus to detect chromosomal abnormalities.
Under the term "birth preparation" set of tools that are useful to prospective parents the time to prepare for the birth of a baby from the beginning of pregnancy are included. They are usually briefings in which an introduction is made to fetal development and existing medical checks, psychological aspects of pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum, the delivery operation; quarantine period after birth, breastfeeding, etc. Besides, in practical classes in preparation for childbirth, a specialized instructor Teaching the pregnant body postures and exercises that will help provide greater elasticity to the muscular structures to facilitate the birth process, and breathing and relaxation techniques that will allow greater self-control at the time of labor contractions.
The abortion of repetition is the loss of three or more consecutive pregnancies before 20 weeks of gestation. Each case must be individualized, age of the woman, the circumstances surrounding the lost or anxiety partners should be aspects to consider.
Risk pregnancy is a type of pregnancy in which there is more chance that the mother or the child have any problems. It is necessary rest and medical supervision and, in some cases it is necessary or take medication or an additional food supplement.
To be one, medium, high or very high risk pregnancy, diseases should be given the mother, the fetus or circumstances that can endanger both.
Pregnancies under 17 and over 38, obese women with abnormalities in the pelvis, with negative Rh, smoking ...
Severe anemia mother, twin pregnancy, the uterus operated unfavorable obstetrical history or women, infection, gestational diabetes, suspected fetal malformation, morbidly obese, ..
Very high risk
Multiple gestations, uterine malformations, heart disease, diabetes, cervical incontinence, restricted fetal growth, fetal malformation confirmed, placenta previa, severe preeclampsia, preterm labor, ruptured membrane.
The second opinion is the medical report containing the diagnostic or therapeutic proposal from the illness of a patient by a different professional who established the first diagnosis. Patients may request a second medical opinion are those who want to confirm or know the valuation of another specialist. If the second opinion is different and the patient chooses the latter option, you can receive assistance both in the center normally attending the patient, as in the center where the final diagnosis is made.
Sexual problems can present both women and men. In women it manifests with symptoms of pain during sexual intercourse, lack of orgasm and desire or arousal problems. In men we find erectile dysfunction, reduction or loss of sexual interest, problems with ejaculation or low testosterone. In both cases, the causes can be psychological stress-related, disease, drugs, or emotional or physical problems.
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a set of different microorganisms caused by infectious diseases, which have in common that are preferably spread during sex. More than 20 known STDs, including: chlamydia and lymphogranuloma, gonorrhea, genital herpes, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), genital warts caused by human papillomavirus, syphilis and trichomoniasis. Although most STDs affect both men and women, women have the most serious health problems. Not all STDs can be cured: those that are caused by bacteria, such as chlamydia, are fought with antibiotics, but they are caused by viruses, such as genital herpes, treatment is limited to alleviate the symptoms.
Abortion spontaneous abortion or miscarriage is the loss of the embryo or fetus from natural causes or not caused intentionally. It is also known as a natural abortion, occurs or before the 20th week of pregnancy first, if later it is premature birth. Spontaneous abortion is divided into early (before 12 weeks) or late (between week 12 and 20).
Transvaginal ultrasound is a medical diagnostic technique used to examine the genitals of women, including the uterus, ovaries and cervix. Images are formed by the use of ultrasound, and the physician observes a monitor by moving a probe while going through the area. The transvaginal ultrasound is usually done during pregnancy, when abnormal findings on physical examination (such as fibroid tumors or cysts), when there is abnormal vaginal bleeding and menstrual problems, pelvic pain, certain types of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, etc. Some of the problems that can be observed are the cancer of the uterus, ovaries, vagina, and other pelvic structures, as well as other infections and congenital abnormalities.
Ultrasound is a diagnostic imaging procedure that allows you to view organs and soft structures within the body. It is made using high-frequency sound waves that are emitted by a transducer that captures the echo of different amplitudes which occurs bounce off the organs. These signals, when processed by a computer, give a series of images of the tissues examined. Today may be two-dimensional, three-dimensional or 4-dimensional images. Ultrasound is a noninvasive technique, in which no radiation used and thus is used to visualize fetuses that are being formed. This procedure can differentiate clearly the shape and size of each structure within the body. In medicine it is used to see the heart, kidneys, liver and blood vessels, among other organs.
Vaginal dryness occurs due to decreased estrogen hormones that maintain tissue lubricated vagina and prevent any kind of pathology. When estrogen levels are reduced, the vaginal tissue shrinks and thickens hindering lubrication. The causes of this condition may be different: menopause, treatments for breast cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids or infertility, severe stress or depression, among others. There are different treatments for vaginal dryness, it is still important to contact a specialist to avoid a worsening of this disease when we present symptoms like vaginal dryness or soreness, burning, itching or pain during sex.
Vaginoplasty is a vaginal rejuvenation surgery aimed to correct the loosening of the tissues of the vaginal canal and restore tone and contractility of the vaginal muscles. The surgical procedure involves closing the muscles around the vagina that are distended or deformed, and are responsible for giving strength to the vaginal walls, while improving elasticity and control of the vulva. The results of this operation are usually highly satisfactory since a tighter vagina and stronger without leaving visible scars in the pelvic floor is obtained. Moreover, in many cases satisfying sex affected by this type of malformations is improved.
Warts are small skin lesions, growths, usually painless, and are harmless. There are many types of warts:
Common warts usually appear on the hands and are common in children.
Genital warts or warts appear on the genitals and around. They are caused by the human papilloma virus and you need to see a doctor.
Plantar warts appear on the soles of the feet and can be very painful.
There are also subungual and periungual warts that are below or around the fingernails or toenails.
Thrush is an infection caused by the fungus Candida, the most common is Candida albicans. It is found in small amounts in the vagina, mouth, digestive tract and skin, often without causing infection. However, the amount of Candida albicans may increase leading to a yeast infection. Most women have a yeast infection throughout their lives.
The causes of candidiasis are:
-Be Taking antibiotics used to treat other types of infections.
- Thrush is not spread through sexual contact. But some men may have a rash on the penis after sexual contact.
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