The allergic conjunctivitis is one of the most frequent external diseases in the consultation of the ophthalmologist. This can present four main forms: seasonal or perennial allergic conjunctivitis (which has no involvement of the cornea) and vernal or atopic keratoconjunctivitis (with involvement of the cornea). In all of them, itching becomes the most prominent symptom, although keratoconjunctivitis involves a more severe clinical picture and can threaten vision.
Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, associated mainly with pollen, is the most prevalent form of ocular allergy among the population, especially in the spring season, coinciding with the pollination cycles of many plants. Perennial allergic conjunctivitis, on the other hand, is present throughout the year as it is linked to indoor allergens such as mites, animal hair or fungi. This difference in temporality, we can also see in keratoconjunctivitis: the vernal, typical of children, usually manifests each spring, while atopic keratoconjunctivitis, typical of adults, is maintained throughout the seasons.
The important thing, in any case, is to know the type of ocular allergy that is affecting us to be able to face it as soon as possible and thus eliminate the discomfort. Environmental measures are essential because, although they are often underestimated, non-medical treatments can be very helpful given that avoiding contact with the trigger allergen is a basic point. The next step is treatment with drugs, such as antihistamines or, if these are not effective, corticosteroids (although applied on the ocular surface can induce alterations such as glaucoma or cataracts). Thus, collaboration between the ophthalmologist, the allergist and the patient on three sides is key to ensuring that the allergy does not eliminate the vitality of spring.