The word orthognathic is composed of two parts that come from the Greek: "ortos" in Greek means straight and "gnathos" means jaw or lower jaw. Nowadays, this surgery also contemplates the correction, also, of the maxilla.
Therefore it is the surgery that is dedicated to put in correct position and size those bones either lengthening it, shortening it or placing it in a different place, in relation to its base of the skull
Physical and psychological consequences
This surgery occurs when there are disharmonies of facial growth , that is, when the maxilla and / or mandible grow more or less than they should in the three planes of space, producing disharmonies in the soft tissue such as very prominent chins or just what opposite, flat faces without volumes, smiles in which a lot of gum is seen, facial asymmetries and sleep apneas.
The teeth erupt in said jaws so that the size and / or position is incorrect, the occlusion between the dental pieces is not adequate, producing irreversible dental injuries, joint pains and problems in mastication.
All these physical problems, we could say, which are irrelevant, compared to the psychics since the patient suffers, from his earliest childhood and especially in adolescence, social rejection, in this society, where aesthetic demands are increasing modeling a shy, introverted and insecure character
During orthognathic surgery a correct alignment of the jaws is achieved, a correct occlusion, as well as facial harmony. When the jaws move three-dimensionally, the soft facial tissue on the chin, cheeks, lips, and tip of the nose move accordingly. Therefore, once the arches are correctly placed, facial harmony is acquired, which translates into a beautiful profile, a face with harmonic facial volumes , that is, balanced and a great psychic change characterized by greater self-confidence. same.
Previously, this type of patients were treated only with orthodontics. This method is called "orthodontic camouflage", since it usually improves slightly the function of chewing, but does not correct the malalignment of the jaws and, frequently, the facial profile worsens as well as being a very long orthodontic process with large Irrigation of dental injuries. Fortunately, fewer and fewer orthodontists are willing to do so.
Today, an orthodontic treatment and surgical intervention are combined .
In all cases, treatment begins with pre-surgical orthodontics (approximately one year, although new surgical techniques allow this period to be reduced to a couple of months in many cases). After surgery is performed, which can be mono or bimaxilar, so that both arches are fixed in the new position by matching the correct occlusion with facial balance.
The orthodontic treatment will continue after the surgery until all the teeth end in a perfect occlusion with duration.
A minimum age
Orthognathic surgery is performed after age 18, when it has usually stopped growing. It is rarely done in smaller patients, especially in the case of the male sex. As women end their growth earlier, it is sometimes possible to do it.
Previously it was carried out, almost exclusively, in the postadolescencia or in the beginning of the maturity, but nowadays, that profile of age is extended since it requires different specialties, for example the protest because for the correct placement of implants you need a correct bone base for a posterior occlusal rehabilitation. Also the pulmonologist for his patients with sleep apnea since it is the only curative treatment that exists for this problem .