An aortic aneurysm is a localized dilation or widening of the aorta, from which comes the heart. It is usually a complication linked to age that produces a weakness in the wall of the artery.
¿What is aortic aneurysm and factors causing its appearance
The aorta is the larger size of the human body, is born in the heart, through the chest and abdomen reaches. We understand aortic aneurysm localized or diffuse widening of the aorta. This type of aneurysm comes from 60 years and its most frequent location is the abdominal aorta.
They are caused by a weakness of the arterial wall secondary to a loss of collagen which gives the necessary strength to the artery. Although there is a genetic predisposition, there are other known risk factors that contribute to this structural alteration: age ( persons aged 60 years ), male gender, the hypertension and smoking. Less often they can also be secondary to infection or trauma.
¿What techniques are used to detect ?¿What symptoms warn of their presence
In the years past aneurysms early diagnosed through the use of modern technologies of diagnosis as the eco-Döppler abdominal, the CTA and MRA. Are usually identified in a review or checkups, from here the importance of making a good prevention practicing vascular periodic reviews to those who have risk factors described above.
aneurysms are silent and do not cause symptoms until complications occur. If the aortic aneurysm is not treated, the natural evolution leads to a progressive growth and ultimately rupture of the artery, causing a serious internal bleeding. Sometimes they can also embolize to the legs causing a thrombus of the aortic wall.
The mortality of complicated aortic aneurysm rupture remains very high (30-60 % ), which underlines the need for early diagnosis and monitoring, as well as its surgical repair before they present this serious complication.
¿Que surgical techniques allow to treat the aneurysm
The AAA can be treated safely and with low mortality if performed early diagnosis and elective treatment. The indication of the repair of an aortic aneurysm (endovascular or conventional) is determined basically by its size. From 5.5 cm in diameter or those of rapid growth, we know that the risk of spontaneous rupture is high and therefore must be repaired. The significant improvements both surgical techniques as numbing of the last two decades have provided a clear improvement in results of non-urgent elective treatment.
At present we have two techniques for repair of aortic aneurysm:
-The Surgery Endovascular ( endoprosthesis ): This involves the introduction through the femoral arteries of endoprosthesis ( Stent or“spring” coated fiber ), which is released and expands between the ends of the aneurysm which the blood passes inside the aneurysm sac depressurizing. There is no need to open the abdomen, which is ideal for the elderly or a pathology associated technique.
-The Conventional Surgery: is resection of the affected segment of aorta and its replacement by a prostheses tubular (Dacron or PTFE) the same size as the healthy aorta. It is a widely proven and excellent long-term technique.
It is essential that the surgeon dominate both techniques to perfection. The choice of one or another technique should be personalized, based on two essential aspects: clinical criteria (age and pathology associated ) and anatomical ( morphometry of the aneurysm )
¿The results of surgery are final and may reoccur
The (conventional or endovascular ) elective surgery of abdominal aortic aneurysm provides excellent results in terms of morbidity and mortality in comparison with the urgent surgery. Therefore, is critical diagnosis and early treatment of this pathology. In this sense, vascular checks, as happens in other diseases, play a fundamental role.