Bipolar disorder is one of the pathologies treated in consultations of Psychiatry. It is characterized by an alteration in the patient's mood, alternating phases of euphoria, depressive phases, mixed phases and periods of mental normality. The disease tends to become chronic.
Symptoms of bipolar disorder
The main symptoms are:
- Manic symptoms: phases of euphoria and hyperactivity mood elevation, decreased need for sleep, thinking and language accelerated, risk behavior and inadequate, overspending, etc.
- Depressive symptoms: sad mood, difficulty concentrating, guilt and sadness, hopelessness, decreased energy, decreased interest in activities previously performed, irritability, decreased libido and appetite, sleep disturbances, etc.
Causes of bipolar disorder
There are several facts and factors that may facilitate the presentation of bipolar disorder, almost all related to genetic factors and alterations in the structure, neurotransmission and brain function.
Also, negative or stressful events such as death, layoff, divorce or change of residence may precipitate the onset of this disease. The family component is very present in this condition, 50% of patients may have a first degree relative with the same problem.
Treatment of bipolar disorder
Treatment is primarily pharmacological and psychotherapeutic. Psychoeducation, psychotherapy and family approach can be very beneficial for awareness and self-knowledge of this disease, improving prognosis and reducing the impact of relapses in the patient's life and environment.
Being a chronic disease, medication should be adjusted in depressive and manic periods and should consider long-term maintenance treatment, aiming to improve the quality of life of patients and preventing relapse or muffling. Each case must be evaluated individually and adapt and combine the various therapeutic interventions. There are treatment guidelines that can serve as a reference.