The macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative disease affecting the central area of the retina, called the macula. AMD is the most common cause of blindness in people over 50 years in Spain. There are two forms of AMD: the most common is atrophic AMD, in which a less frequent progressive atrophy of the macula leading to a progressive loss of central vision, and neovascular or exudative occurs, which occur bleeding and accumulation of fluid in the macula, leading to a sudden and severe loss of central vision.
Causes of DMAE
The main risk for AMD is age, because after 50 years the probability increases progressively. Being female, being Caucasian, have clear eyes, a family history of AMD or obese are other risk factors.
Moreover, the appearance of the fundus usually have great value in estimating the risk of disease. The coloration of the macula and the type of deposits that appear with age as a result of macular aging, are important when recommending a follow-up pattern to make an early diagnosis of AMD.
Symptoms of AMD
The difficulty reading, deformity images or dark spots in central vision are some of the symptoms that appear gradually because of AMD.
To diagnose AMD one expert ophthalmologist should perform an examination of the fundus and signs that appear in the scanner of the macula by OCT, or optical coherence tomography, angiography and by OCT.
Treatment of AMD
Currently, atrophic AMD has no treatment but are conducting clinical trials with different drugs to slow its progression with promising results.
Neovascular AMD, however, does have treatment. In fact, the proper administration of anti-angiogenic drugs, which inhibit the formation of new blood vessels, injected into the eye, using intravitreal injections, can prevent blindness in over 95% of cases and restore vision in one in three cases.
To reduce the risk of DMAE is important to always use sunglasses to protect against UV rays. Similarly, you need to quit smoking and stay fit and proper weight.