The spots on the skin correspond to areas of normal skin in which it is being manufactured and accumulate more amount of pigment (melanin) than it would correspond.
Types of skin spots
Lentigos and Melasma are 2 different types of spots on the skin, caused by ultraviolet radiation.
There are other structures on the skin that may be more or less pigmented, but that are not simple spots. We refer to the flat seborrheic keratosis, keratosis to liquenoides, a pigmented flat warts, and actinic keratoses etc. In all, the skin is not normal, it is more or less thickened and texture is different.
Why do stains appear on the skin?
Lentigo type spots come from chronic exposure to the sun. Mostly, they are an aesthetic problem but, in some cases, they can degenerate and you have to be careful and pay special attention to the spots on the face that change, grow or partially darken.
Ultraviolet radiation and hormonal stimulation are involved in Melasma. It occurs much more in women than in men. Your treatment is difficult. The other pigmented structures that we have commented, have different origins.
Seborrheic Keratosis correspond to a personal / family predisposition and may be more or less pigmented. They usually start their appearance in adulthood.
The lichenoid Keratosis appear, preferably, in exposed areas (neck, arms and legs), and are completely benign, although they may catch fire at some time, especially in spring.
Flat warts represent a casual viral infection by contact. They may be of normal skin color or somewhat pigmented. Like small tiles.
Actinic keratosis is a solar "pre-lesion", which must be treated so that it does not evolve into a true cutaneous carcinoma.. They are usually scratchy, more or less pink or somewhat pigmented and more sensitive than normal skin.
How can they be differentiated from a carcinogenic lesion?
Any stain that begins to change color or texture should be consulted by a specialist. A change of color in a Lentigo, in a person who has been very exposed to the sun, may represent a degeneration of one of its cells. Any lesion that "scratches" and is persistent or has a special sensitivity should also be valued.
Is there any treatment that eliminates them?
Solar Lentigos type stains can be eliminated with IPL (intense pulsed light), which selectively burns them. Of course, the subsequent photoprotection is required to avoid, as far as possible, its reappearance.
Melasma is more difficult, because although the IPL can be used, the stain may persist, so depigmenting chemicals must be used, maintained over time, to stop this continuous manufacture.
The treatments of the rest of the commented structures are more abrasive and / or selective: Cryotherapy for the seborrheic keratosis, lichenoid, actinic; various lasers, specific chemical substances, surgical excisions.
The treatment of the different lesions depends mainly on their diagnosis and their location. In most spots (not all), ultraviolet radiation has been the promoter, so protect yourself from it, is the most advisable attitude.