Hypertension: risk factors and treatment

Written by: José Luis Palma Gámiz
Published: | Updated: 25/10/2018
Edited by: Top Doctors®

In Spain, about 25% of the population over age 40 have hypertension. This, according to experts in adult cardiology , makes them have a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases.

hypertension 2 According to Dr.. Palma Gámiz, cardiologist, hypertension is a major inducer of atherosclerosis, heart attack, stroke, kidney failure, intermittent claudication of the lower limbs and blindness.

What is hypertension?

Blood circulates through the ducts of the arteries and veins through the heart, which acts as a pump to a predetermined pressure propelling. He called blood pressure (BP), it is essential for blood to be distributed by the different organs and body systems.

High blood pressure (hypertension) occurs when blood pressure exceeds the maximum permissible levels. This situation deteriorates known as "target organs", which are the heart, brain, kidney, arteries of large and medium caliber arterioles, capillaries and retinal.

Normal blood pressure

In an adult maximum levels should not be higher than 135/85 mmHg, while the optimal blood pressure would be around 115/75 mmHg.

However, in some patients these numbers are different. For example, in a diabetic's blood pressure the lower the better. However, in elderly patients with a deficit of cerebral blood flow optimal levels for maximum blood pressure may be between 140 and 150 mmHg.

Risk factors for high blood pressure

In 95% of cases the origin of hypertension is unknown, it is called essential hypertension. In the remaining 5% hypertension due to a known cause, such as a renal artery stenosis, aortic coarctation or endocrine disease.

  • Age: Between 40 and 55 blood pressure tends to rise. In the population over 60 years, the prevalence of high blood pressure exceeds 30%, while the population over 70 years the incidence is 1 in 2 people.
  • Gender: hypertension is less common in women before menopause, but the prevalence equals and even surpasses that of men from 60 years delos.
  • Type of hypertension: hypertension can be classified into three varieties: isolated diastolic (when only elevated diastolic blood pressure more common in young adults). Mixed (when the systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure are elevated simultaneously, and is most common in median ages). Isolated systolic (when only high systolic blood pressure, typically in over 60 years)
  • Origin: without knowing why, hypertension is more common in individuals of African origin.

Treatment of hypertension

To treat high blood pressure should maintain healthy habits, like being at your ideal weight, exercising, eating a healthy diet low in salt, not smoking and avoiding stress. Thus, in many cases delay processing is achieved or facilitate optimal conditions for never present.  

*Translated with Google translator. We apologize for any imperfection

By José Luis Palma Gámiz

Dr. Palma Gámiz reference is a cardiologist with extensive experience in hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, angina and other heart-related diseases. Throughout his long career he has been, among other positions, Clinical Chief of Cardiology at the Ramon y Cajal Hospital in Madrid, President of the Hypertension Section of the SEC and current Vice-President of the Spanish Heart Foundation. His background It includes long stays abroad that have placed him as one of the most important specialists in their field. throughout his career, he has actively concerned about the disclosure of their work and the scientific knowledge of heart disease. He has written over a dozen books in the field and authored or coauthored more than a hundred scientific papers. He has lectured at numerous national and international scientific forums. Currently, it offers all its expertise and services to patients in the Basel Clinic in Madrid where he is director of the Unit of Cardiology and Regenerative Medicine.

*Translated with Google translator. We apologize for any imperfection

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