The thyroid is a gland located in the lower neck on either side of the midline. Uppercase H-shaped with two lobes, right and left, and a strip of binding, the isthmus.
The mission of the thyroid is to produce thyroid hormone, also called thyroxine, which regulates us speed our metabolism and, therefore, if it acts faster, as occurs in hyperthyroidism, produce nervousness, restlessness, insomnia ... and if it does slower, in hypothyroidism produce fatigue, somnolence, fluid retention, and so forth.
When thyroid function is disrupted causing hypothyroidism, decreased production of hormone, or hyperthyroidism, increased hormone production, proper specialist for treatment is the endocrine. When the gland has an enlarged is called goiter, and this may be diffuse (uniform) or nodular (uni or multinodular) and the specialist should be involved in the diagnosis, therapeutic decision and finally surgical treatment is the Otolaryngologist , that right now he is the only recognized title and "facial cervical pathology" specialist.
Surgical treatment of thyroid disease
Leaving aside the approach of Graves' disease (diffuse hyperthyroid goiter) surgery on the thyroid is primarily focused on the treatment of suspected or confirmed malignant nodules as well as that of single or multiple nodules, even if they are benign, causing its anatomical abnormalities such as deviation of the airway, the trachea, or blemishes size.
Surgical techniques are generally reduced to two: the hemithyroidectomy or removal of one lobe, half of the thyroid, which is usually not require postoperative adjuvant treatment of thyroxine and total thyroidectomy or removal of the entire gland, which always require hormone replacement therapy. With the right dose of thyroxine patients can make an absolutely normal life.
Operation Results Thyroid
The operation usually produces thyroid without incident, is not particularly painful and hospitalization comes to last between two and three days. As with all surgery there are risks, but fortunately complications are rare and in most cases temporary, that is, decrease in a longer or shorter time after surgery. These risks are due to inform the patient prior to surgery clinical interviews.
And generally being in good hands, less than 1% of patients may have permanent voice alterations and about 2%, alterations in calcium levels also permanently resolved and taking oral calcium. These calcium possible alterations appear only when a total thyroidectomy, ie, complete removal of the thyroid is performed.