Thyroid Gland function and alterations

Written by: Dr.Prof. Javier Tébar Massó
Edited by: Top Doctors®

The thyroid gland regulates cellular metabolism of the whole body. If you have changes all body functions may be affected. Hence the importance of treating time.


The thyroid gland and its function

The thyroid gland is an endocrine organ, ie a body capable of producing hormones and secrete them into the bloodstream to be distributed throughout the body, having wound to each and every one of the body's cells. Thyroid hormones are essential for life, without them we die soon.

The thyroid gland is located at the front of the neck, in front of the trachea and below the thyroid cartilage (the "nut"). Born in the back of the tongue where, in the first weeks of life, migrate to their usual space. By the eleventh week of gestation, the fetus is able to produce thyroid hormones.

The thyroid is composed of many small areas, follicles, formed by specialized cells in the manufacture, storage and secretion of thyroid hormones.The thyroid gland is specifically regulated by a hormone called TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone), produced in the pituitary. Without the latter, the thyroid gland does not work. Similarly, the synthesis of thyroid hormones requires the existence of iodine in the body, because otherwise it will not be a normal amount of thyroid hormones.

The role of thyroid hormones, explained simply, is the regulation of cell metabolism throughout the body but also is involved in growth and differentiation of tissues, highlighting its role in the maturation of the central nervous system. 

Thyroid gland, abnormal

The thyroid gland may suffer three types of changes:a) Alterations deficit tiroideas- synthesis of hormones Hypothyroidism is called primary when it is due to thyroid or secondary disease when in the pituitary. The lack of thyroid hormones makes the whole body will gradually fading until death occurs.b) Alterations excess synthesis-Hyperthyroidism Excess hormones causes an increase in metabolic rate of cells causes wear and death. All organs are affected and the patient's death may also occur.c) Changes in the shape of the gland without alteration of hormone synthesis: Alterations of the form make mention of the occurrence of benign or malignant tumors.


Treatment of disorders of the thyroid gland

There are various treatments depending on the alteration of the Thyroid Gland. So Hypothyroidism is treated with the administration of synthetic thyroid hormone mouth. Initially accurate hyperthyroidism inhibitor of thyroid hormone synthesis and then some patients may require surgery or administration of radioactive iodine.Moreover, tumors, all malignant and 20-30% of benign need surgery; the observation rest and sometimes medical treatment to stop resting gland.

*Translated with Google translator. We apologize for any imperfection

By Dr.Prof. Javier Tébar Massó
Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism

*Translated with Google translator. We apologize for any imperfection

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