Stains on the face and hands, unsightly freckles, tattoos that now bother ... Pigmented lesions are very common skin disorders. Many can be easily eliminated by putting yourself in the hands of a good specialist. However, before deleting them, you have to determine what type of stain it is.
Pigmented lesions are those marks that appear on the skin and have a different color from the rest of the body. As Dr explains. Alejandro Camps, a dermatologist at Teknon Medical Center, can be of two types: "The exogenous ones would be, for example, tattoos. Stains made with pigments that come from outside the body and that have been embedded in the skin. The rest would be the endogenous, alterations of the pigment such as congenital spots (which are from birth) or acquired (spots that appear over time by processes such as diseases, sun exposure, changes in the body, etc).
Among the factors that lead to the appearance of the spots that form over time on the face, arms, hands, neckline ... highlights the exposure to ultraviolet rays. "This type of radiation is what most affects pigmented lesions, both in pre-existing ones and in those that will be formed in the future as a result of sunbathing or exposing oneself to arti fi cial tanning lamps", says Dr.. Alejandro Camps.
But there are other elements, beyond the congenital or hereditary causes, that can determine the appearance of spots in different parts of the body.. This is the case of the intake of lead or arsenic (situation that can take place in certain work environments) or the affliction of suprarenal conditions.
To prevent these imperfections of the skin it is essential to be exposed to ultraviolet rays with adequate protection. As Dr explains. Alejandro Camps: "The problem is that here there is no discrete exposure to ultraviolet. Our culture believes that the pigment cluster is associated with health and progress. And this is wrong. This causes us to expose ourselves excessively to the sun and to go to artificial tanning centers to expose ourselves to ultraviolet lamps. All this produces injuries that affect the production of melanin, which is what gives us color, and affect the skin cells, which over time are suffering a significant deterioration. "
In the dermatologist's office
Many people go to dermatology consultations to inform the doctor about the appearance of spots on the skin, to determine if they are serious and, also, to find an adequate treatment to "erase" these pigmented lesions. The goal of many patients is usually to get a skin with fewer imperfections and, incidentally, recover a rejuvenated appearance. In the words of Dr. Alejandro Camps: "From certain ages appear spots that age the appearance. We have the idea that pigmented lesions on the face or on the back of hands do not have a person of 20 years, so we usually relate to aging. Other times, these spots should look very good. We have instruments to analyze them and not mistakenly confuse a stain that could have an evil implication. "
The rise of tattoos among young people has also increased the demand for treatments to eliminate this exogenous pigmentation of the skin. "The treatments for the added pigments usually consist in the use of lasers with different wavelengths, according to the colors to be erased. If the treatments are well done, the laser does not have to burn the skin. What does happen is that, having to do many sessions to eliminate the tattoo, if you are in a hurry to end the color, we must be careful not to injure the skin, "says Dr.. Camps. "The ideal is to put yourself in the hands of experts and choose to go eliminating the tattoo little by little, with the sessions that are necessary".
The most used treatments
Clear most spots is possible. Conventional treatments, such as peels or the use of creams, add more sophisticated and effective options, such as the use of lasers or pulsed light techniques : "From the beginning, chemical peels have been very useful for us.. They cause a skin replacement that makes the spots disappear. Then, treatments by cold, with cryogen or liquid nitrogen, can also help to remove stains, but they begin to imply a certain risk. Other resources can be laser techniques , which consist of applying a very intense but very short radiation shot. This collides with the skin and causes the rupture of the sachets that have the pigment, called melanosomes. With this we eliminate the spots with great efficiency, and they are very safe and satisfactory treatments. If we want to eliminate the color of very large areas, we can use intense pulsed light (IPL), "explains the dermatologist.
The use of cosmetics
Regarding cosmetic products, Dr. Alejandro Camps has a clear idea: "There are substances that, when applied to the skin, such as hydroquinone, can work. But you have to be careful with the spots produced by the solar stimulus. In these cases, it is necessary to warn the person about the little effect that a cosmetic will have if in the morning it takes the sun and at night the cream is put. Ideally, use high sunscreen and use the anti-stain cream as a supplement. Although for certain types of injuries, these products do not usually work. "