The vitreous is a transparent gel composed mostly of water, and to a lesser extent by collagen, proteins and other elements. Its function is mainly to give transparent content to the posterior cavity of the eye, in whose fund the retina is located. The vitreous is not vascularized and does not regenerate, and it should be noted that at birth it is a homogeneous gel that over the years is liquefied and more or less dense flocs appear that can cause small shadows in the vision: those commonly known as " flying flies ".
The vitreous is affected mainly by the deposit of various substances that cause its loss of transparency and therefore loss of vision. Mainly for three types of causes: hemorrhages of the retina (secondary to diabetes , thrombosis , retinal ruptures , etc.), inflammatory (various diseases of the retina and choroid ) and infectious (infections after surgery, after trauma, through the blood , etc.).
Vitreous surgery can be performed for two reasons. The first of these is the loss of transparency of the same (hemorrhages, inflammations or infections), and the second as an access route to reach the retina and solve the problems of it (detachment, macular pathologies, etc).
Vitrectomy consists of vitreous removal and repair of existing retinal lesions. It is done through 3 incisions of very small size through which the necessary instruments are introduced. At the end of the surgery, in the cavity where the vitreous was left, a substitute that can be serum, air, gas or silicone oil is left.. The incisions in many cases are self-sealing and do not require suturing.