Coloproctology is a branch of digestive surgery that covers the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the anus, rectum and colon.. The special prevalence of colorectal pathology among society with conditions as common as hemorrhoids or anus fistulas, and sometimes, its severity, such as cancer, requires coloproctologists to undergo continuous "fine-tuning" in the name of to offer its patients the latest advances in diagnosis and treatment, fruit of the constant scientific progress in this area of surgery.
In 2010, the European Journal of Cancer Prevention already warned about the alarming increase of colorectal cancer in Spain. This tumor - the second most frequent tumor behind that of the lung in man and the breast tumor in women - has described a growing prevalence curve in the last fifty years.. Habits of unhealthy consumption such as alcohol, tobacco, red meat or poor fiber intake in the diet; together with the overweight and lack of physical exercise, as well as the genetic predisposition to suffer it in some cases, are factors that are related to a tumor that causes more than 13,000 deaths annually in our country.
However, this tumor is curable in a large percentage of cases, especially if an early diagnosis is made by simple tests of hidden haemorrhages in the stool or using endoscopy techniques (colonoscopy). In addition, the Coloproctology Unit of the Hospital Nisa 9 de Octubre has the support of diagnostic methods for imaging such as CT, PET or magnetic resonance, "and with a complete laboratory that gives us the possibility of carrying out even genetic analysis", Matiza Dr. García Armengol. All this allows to establish precisely the phase in which the tumor is located, and thus offer an accurate diagnosis to each patient.
The Unit has recently improved its facilities in an important way, with a functional examination room for performing endoanal and endorectal ultrasound, rectoanal manometry and sphincter rehabilitation using Biofeedback, as well as rigid videoendoscopy, or videodefecography, among other procedures.. Its location next to the Digestive Endoscopy Unit of the hospital and the close collaboration with oncologists and the Radiation Oncology Service Nisa, among others, favor a multidisciplinary action.
Thus, in addition to favoring the early diagnosis and detailed assessment of polyps and cancer of the colon and rectum, or of inflammatory diseases such as Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis or diverticula, all investigations of anorectal functionalism are carried out, diagnosis of anal pathology such as fistulas, hemorrhoids, fissures or stenosis, the evaluation of complex pelvic floor problems, some as important as anal incontinence, rectocele or rectal prolapse, or anal neoplasms and sexually transmitted diseases among others.
Among the therapeutic novelties that are applied in the Coloproctology Unit of the Hospital Nisa 9 de Octubre highlights the minimally invasive treatment of hemorrhoids, with the development of new surgical techniques to reduce postoperative discomfort, sometimes guided by Doppler, or assisted by other sources of energy - ultrasonic bisturí, laser, etc-, to make more precise treatments and that allow a more precocious recovery. It is decided bet by a minor surgical aggression that makes advanced laparoscopic surgery for most of colorectal surgery, which achieves minimal discomfort and almost no scars.
In the case of colorectal cancer, to the seriousness of the disease itself, you can join the fear that the treatment goes through the stoma or creation of an artificial anus. "Our team of surgeons, with extensive experience in rectal cancer surgery, routinely perform ultra-low suture techniques that prevent a definitive stoma in most patients except when there is an affectation of the anal sphincters," says Dr.. Roig Vila. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery operations are also performed. This technique manages to treat polyps and rectal cancers in early stages with the least aggression. The lesion is removed through the anus itself, which reduces the risk of intervention and prevents the stoma or artificial anus in some cases.