Pollen allergy has gone from being seasonal to multistational. In addition to being very present in spring, appears during the winter and summer, what was once an episode of just a month has become a problem that runs from January to July.
The factors that have contributed to this multi-nationality are the increase of ornamental trees (such as banana trees, cypresses ...) and dieselization (the increasingly common use of diesel vehicles). These changes, so present in large cities, are the key to the increase in allergies that have occurred in Spain in recent years. When diesel gases come into contact with pollen proteins, they make them even more virulent. Pollen affects the airways of the citizen sensitizing them, making them more prone to allergy. For this reason in large cities, being more polluted, there is a prevalence of sensitization to different types of pollen, in highly polluted areas pollen allergy is three times higher than in rural areas where there are less pollicos for pollution.
Allergies that vary according to the geographical area
The type of allergy to pollen varies according to the geographical area of Spain in which we find ourselves. While in the north, the most important allergies are the allergy to the grasses during the months of March, June and July, in the zones of the center of Spain, the allergies to the cypresses and the banana trees predominate. In the south, on the other hand, the olive tree leaves the most affected.
For this reason and with the aim of avoiding risks, for people who are allergic to pollen, prior knowledge of the area when traveling is very important.. On www.polenes.com , the website of the Spanish Society of Allergy, you can find the type of pollen that affects each area.
The predisposition to allergies
For a person to be allergic, a genetic predisposition is necessary, which is greater if both family members (father and mother) are allergic. If they are also allergic to some type of pollen, the probability increases. Another factor that most influences the predisposition to suffer allergies is tobacco during pregnancy.
Pollution from oil combustion also negatively affects the quality of life. There was a change in the type of pollution, which increased the awareness of citizens to pollen allergies four times more. This occurred when the coal was used as a source (when producing chronic bronchitis) to oil, which led to this remarkable rise in cases of allergies.
Allergic rhinitis, one of the most violent manifestations
Allergic rhinitis is one of the most aggressive manifestations of pollen allergy. The symptoms are like those of a severe flu (nasal congestion, catarrh, ...) and last up to four months. The alteration that can cause is considered worse than a myocardial infarction in terms of quality of life is concerned.
Recommendations and treatments to prevent and alleviate allergies
To avoid allergic rhinitis, among others, there are three types of treatments:
1. Avoidance: As far as possible, the patient should travel to the coast or to pollution-free zones in order not to breathe such pollinated airs.
2. Symptomatic Treatments: Consists of the administration of corticosteroids or similar to improve and calm the symptoms of the allergic patient.
3. Healing Treatments: This type of treatment is known as "allergy shots". These manage to modify the patient's immune system permanently, the degree of allergy decreases between 20% and 80%.
In addition to the treatments that exist for allergies, there are practical tips to prevent risks among allergic people:
- Close windows, avoid the field, go near the sea, ... Pollic avoidance measures should be applied whenever necessary.
- Know when to start and end the symptomatic treatment.
- Go to the specialist since he will know exactly which pollens are present in the atmosphere during the period in which the patient presents the symptoms. This fact is of crucial importance, since the effectiveness of vaccination will depend to a large extent on it. Only with a vaccine that contains pollen or pollens that are truly relevant to the patient's disease will satisfactory results be obtained.
- Plan the trips that are going to be made, checking the type of pollen that is in the place of destination. For example, a Madrid resident with a seasonal bronchial asthma moderated by olive pollen allergy, could visit Jaén without any problem during the Easter holidays, but on the contrary it would be dangerous for him to do it in May or June.