Tinnitus, also called tinnitus, is the perception of sound in one ear, in both or "head" without an external agent to produce. Tinnitus is a symptom that can be associated with many diseases, not only the sense of hearing.
From a practical standpoint, the patient perceives a noise and described in different ways: ringing, ringing, bell, buzzer, wind, drip, hoot, hiss, etc.. Specialists in Otolaryngology have tried to link the characteristics of tinnitus with specific diagnoses, but these features are only useful in certain cases.
Type of tinnitus
From a clinical point of view we must distinguish two types of tinnitus:
The objective tinnitus is a real sound created by the body itself and perceived by the ear; usually they are like tapping or rubbing. In these cases, the ear has no problem, only you hear a noise generated in your area. Some sample scenarios would be something near the eardrum (a hair or wax), muscle spasms chain tensioners internal ossicles or a venous or arterial problem, in which the blood generates friction when driving and ear perceives.
Subjective tinnitus is the "true" and lies in a noise that only the patient is able to perceive. It could be described as a "hallucination" of a noise and its characteristics are completely variables regarding the timbre, pitch, intensity, characteristics, tolerability, and so on.
Why tinnitus originate?
Although it is an extremely common symptom, only in very few cases it represents a real problem. Our brain is constantly bombarded by a multitude of stimuli, which would return us crazy not leaked. This restriction eliminates stimuli to which an "emotional burden" is not linked or "sense of danger or threat". A clear example is when we entered the basin; if anyone has used before, for a few seconds we perceive the odor, but soon stop noticing because that stimulus is classified as "neutral" and filtered at a subconscious level. If, however, the smell is gas is organized as a "potential threat" and do not stop to distinguish the smell. With tinnitus something similar happens; in a few cases the direct cause of tinnitus is vital to the person threatened, but if it is perceived as such, is associated with an "emotional burden" and continues to be seen, which happens to be a problem for the patient, sometimes they can get to interfere with work, sleep and life in general.
Causes of tinnitus
Tinnitus is not a disease in itself but a symptom. Its causes are endless, both among the pathologies of the ear or auditory nerve pathway, as in diseases of the body that are unrelated to the ear. They can also be caused by treatments that are provided to address them.
Among the causes "ear" we can find common: earwax, infections, mucus, perforated eardrum or otosclerosis. In these cases it is likely that, along with tinnitus, the patient has a reduction in hearing. However, a large number of patients with tinnitus do not diminish their hearing or any disease in the ear that can detect. In other cases, the patient has a hypersensitivity to sounds, which is known as hyperacusis, which represents not hear more, but unbearably usual noises bother.
Among the causes are hypertension, diabetes, thyroid disorders, dyslipidemia (cholesterol / triglycerides), among many others. In addition, some professional and / or sports activities can provoke or worsen, as the extreme diving, mainly bottles, but also in apnea. Other situations or occupations requiring prolonged exposure to loud noises like hunters, military, blacksmiths, looms, etc and using headphones at extreme volume also influence.
Edited by Roser Berner Ubasos.