Glaucoma is a degenerative disease caused by increased pressure inside the eye (intraocular pressure). The eye contains a fluid therein which is renewed constantly, but if this drainage system fails, the intraocular pressure increases, which can damage the optic nerve. It is a particularly serious disease because it usually has no symptoms and can lead to a sudden loss of vision.
Types of glaucoma
There are several types of glaucoma:- Open - angle glaucoma: Its main sign is elevated intraocular pressure chronically. It is the most common type of glaucoma.- Closed - angle glaucoma: In this glaucoma fluid from the front of the eye can not reach the angle out of this, because of the iris blocks the angle.- Congenital glaucoma: In this case children are born with a defect in the corner of the eye that slows the normal drainage of fluid from the eye. The symptoms they notice these children tend to be: dull eyes, sensitivity to light and excessive tearing.- Secondary Glaucoma: They usually develop as a result of complications from other diseases.
Importance of treating glaucoma properly
If glaucoma is not treated properly it can lead to blindness. Hence it is essential that the specialist in ophthalmology perform regular eye examinations in order to detect early and thus preserve the view, with proper treatment. There are different treatments that can slow the disease:- Trabeculoplasty laser: It is a surgery that helps the eye drain the intraocular fluid. However, despite the intervention, patients will have to continue taking medication to control the disease.- Conventional Surgery: The surgeon makes a new opening for fluid to leave the inside of the eye. Normally this surgery is the last resort, when drugs and laser surgery to control eye pressure. During the weeks after surgery the patient should put a few drops to prevent infection and inflammation.- Sclerectomy not penetrating deep (EPNP): a new filtration system is established without drilling the eye, which prevents the most common complications. It is a technique that perform few specialists in glaucoma and is chosen by Oftálica.