Periodontics is the dental discipline that deals with the affectations of the gums, which in a simple way, are two:
1. Gingivitis , which consists of an inflammation of the gums, characterized by redness, sacred and gingival inflammation, but which can be a reversible process if we improve oral hygiene.
2. Periodontitis , which occurs if the gingivitis is not resolved. It is a chronic process that affects the apparatus for holding the tooth and in particular the bone, which is lost. To an extreme degree, the teeth move and can be lost.
Both pathologies can be contagious if the patient has a partner. It is quite usual that if one of the two members of the couple suffers, the other also, although, of course, there are exceptions.
It is important to note that a healthy gum should never bleed. If it does, in the best case it will be a gingivitis, pathology that, as already mentioned, is reversible if treated properly.
Prevention is the most effective measure for not suffering from gingivitis , and consists simply of adequate oral hygiene and elimination of bacterial plaque , although factors such as smoking are also determinants.
An adequate oral hygiene should be performed every night , with the use of proper brushing technique and interdental hygiene (with dental floss, interoximal brushes, irrigator, etc.). As a complement, you can even use a specific toothpaste and mouthwash for the gums.
If periodontitis has already been established, the treatment is more complex and in some cases it requires surgical treatment. It must be borne in mind that periodontitis is a chronic process , so in addition to treatment is essential an adequate maintenance program with several visits per year, depending on various factors.
The surgery to treat a periodontitis consists of the opening of the gum, performing the removal of the periodontal pocket, granulation or infectious tissue and decontaminating the bone and cement of the root of the tooth.
Occasionally, regeneration treatments of lost bone are performed. Finally, the gum is sutured appropriately.