• President and Coordinator of the Menopause Section within SAGO, Andalusian Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Andalusian Section within AEEM, the Study of the Spanish Society of Menopause• Secretary General of the Spanish Menopause Society
• Professor of Gynecology and specialist in Reproductive Medicine and Gynecological Endocrinology of the University of Granada. accredited by ANECA (2004 - present)• Part-time Associate Professor at the University of Granada (2008 - 2011)
• Associate Professor of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the University of Granada (2002)• Tutor of residents and member of the Teaching Commission of the "Virgen de las Nieves" Hospital (1999 - 2004)• He has participated in several Teaching Innovation Projects and has directed 7 doctoral theses, all of them the outstanding qualification Cum Laude• Organizer of the course on "Continuous training in Gynecology and Obstetrics" of the University Hospital "Virgen de las Nieves" of Granada• Research professor within the "Cervantes Research Study" funded by AKZO NOBEL• Research Professor of the "Efficacy of endometrial protection and acceptability of 3 doses of norethisterone together with a continuous fixed dose of 17β-estradiol for administration to postmenopausal women" funded by Servier Laboratories ...
• Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery from the University of Granada• Specialist in Obstetrics and Gynecology
• International Course in Endoscopic Surgery by the University of Cádiz• Course of Surgical Diagnosis in Hysteroscopy at the Hospital "El Ejido"• Course in Emergency Medical Care in patients of Gynecology and Obstetrics in the University Hospital "Virgen de las Nieves" of Granada• Course in Laparoscopic Surgery by the Andalusian Health Service (SAS) at the Hospital of Úbeda• Course in Gynecological Endocrinology at the University Hospital "Virgen de las Nieves" of Granada ...
Publications and conferences
• He has been a principal investigator, lecturer and part-time professor in several research studies in gynecology, obstetrics and menopause; At national and international level• He is the author of more than 50 research articles that have been published in important international journals
• Editor of 5 books of Endocrinological Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine• Editor of 4 textbooks of Gynecology for medical students.• Collaborator in two other textbooks of Gynecology for students of Medicine• Collaborator in 10 clinical practice guides on Endocrinological Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine• 56 articles in international journals of the specialty with Impact Factor. 61 articles in Spanish specialty magazines• 1st Meeting of the Andalusian Association of Menopausal Studies ...
Prizes and awards
• President of Honor of the Association of students of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Granada (2013)
• Founding member of the Andalusian Section of Gynecological Endoscopy• Founding member of the Andalusian Section of Menopause
• Member of the Spanish Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (SEGO)• Member of the Andalusian Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (SAGO)• Member of the Spanish Fertility Society (SEF)• Member of the Spanish Society for the Study of Menopause (AEEM) ...
*Translated with Google translator. We apologize for any imperfection
Assisted reproduction techniques are useful to help a woman become pregnant. Some of these techniques include artificial insemination or in vitro fertAssisted reproduction techniques are useful to help a woman become pregnant. Some of these techniques include artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization (IVF).
¿Qué es una endoscopia digestiva?
Una endoscopia digestiva, conocida también como gastroscopia, es una prueba que se utiliza para diagnosticar e in¿Qué es una endoscopia digestiva?
Una endoscopia digestiva, conocida también como gastroscopia, es una prueba que se utiliza para diagnosticar e iniciar el tratamiento de enfermedades del aparato digestivo superior: esófago, estómago y el duodeno.
La endoscopia se lleva a cabo a través de un endoscopio que se introduce por la boca hasta que llega al intestino y permite a los especialistas observar por la cámara que se encuentra en su extremo.
A su vez, el propio endoscopio cuenta con diversos canales en su interior por el cual se pueden introducir instrumentos que dan la posibilidad de realizar a la vez otras pruebas, como por ejemplo una biopsia o llegar a hacer tratamientos, como serían la extirpación de pólipos o nódulos y la cauterización de vasos sanguíneos sangrantes.
¿En qué consiste una endoscopia?
Una endoscopia digestiva consiste principalmente en una exploración del tubo digestivo superior, es decir, estómago, esófago y duodeno a través de la introducción de un endoscopio a través de la boca. El endoscopio es un instrumento flexible con una lente y una cámara en su parte final. Las imágenes que capta en tiempo real se muestran en monitor conforme avanza el endoscopio.
Su duración gira en torno al cuarto o a la media hora, aunque en el caso de que se encuentren aspectos inesperados o se ha de tomar algún tipo de tratamiento terapéutico o biopsia.
¿Por qué se realiza una endoscopia digestiva?
Existen diversos motivos por los cuales se puede llevar a cabo una endoscopia digestiva. Son los siguientes:
Analizar problemas del esófago, tales como esofagitis, estrechamientos o tumores
Analizar problemas del estómago: gastritis, tumores y úlceras gástricas
Diagnóstico de hernia de hiato y/o de reflujo gastroesofágico
Cirrosis hepática: en estos casos pueden darse engrosamiento en las venas del estómago y del esófago, las llamadas varices esofágicas
Hematemesis: para encontrar la causa de los vómitos con sangre
Se utiliza en casos de anemias por falta de hierro y existe sospecha de que hay pérdida de sangre en el tubo digestivo
Muestras para diagnosticar celiaquías o infecciones bacterianas
Para llegar a la salida de la vía biliar del duodeno y diagnosticar enfermedades.
A su vez, la endoscopia digestiva posee otras particularidades al margen de diagnosticar problemas en el aparato digestivo, ya que se puede utilizar para fines terapéuticos en algunos casos:
Retirar cuerpos extraños que se pueden haber quedado en el intestino superior
Dilatar el esófago en el caso de que exista un estrechamiento
Extirpar pólipos del intestino
Cauterizar vasos sangrantes o ligando varices esofágicas que puedan sangrar
Preparación para una endoscopia digestiva
La endoscopia digestiva o gastroscopia no es un procedimiento que requiera una gran preparación para llevarla a cabo.
El paciente debe evitar ingerir comida o bebida durante las ocho horas anteriores al examen, así como dejar su medicación habitual salvo que el especialista indique lo contrario.
Por otro lado, salvo norma general, al paciente no se le administrará ninguna medicación antes de la prueba, aunque en ocasiones se puede aplicar un anestésico local en la garganta para reducir las posibles náuseas.
Existen también casos en los que se administrará sedación intravenosa para relajar al paciente.
¿Qué se siente durante el examen?
La gastroscopia es una prueba indolora, y apenas dura entre tres y cinco minutos. Pese a tratarse de una prueba que no es dolorosa, el paciente notará molestias mientras se introduce el endoscopio, sintiendo constantes náuseas.
Una vez terminada la exploración, el paciente sentirá molestias en su garganta, que estará entumecida. El paciente puede tener gases debido al aire ingerido, pero estos desaparecerán rápidamente.
Significado de resultados anormales
La de la endoscopia digestiva es una prueba bastante segura en la que apenas aparecen complicaciones. De hecho, las posibles complicaciones aumentan en el momento en el que el endoscopio se utiliza para aplicar algún tipo de tratamiento.
Las posibles complicaciones serían la perforación, reacciones medicamentosas, hemorragias, alteraciones cardiopulmonares…
Avances en endoscopia
Los avances tecnológicos permiten explorar vías que antaño eran imposibles, como la vía biliar o la vía pancreática. Así, gracias a esto se pueden diagnosticar y tratar problemas que antes requerían una intervención quirúrgica.
En las zonas en las que el endoscopio no llega, existe la llamada cápsula endoscópica, que se ingiere como si fuese una pastilla y trasmite imágenes del interior del aparato digestivo a un monitor sin que el paciente sienta molestia alguna.
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the union of egg and sperm artificially in the laboratory in order to obtain a suitable number of embryos to tran
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the union of egg and sperm artificially in the laboratory in order to obtain a suitable number of embryos to transfer to the uterus and fertilize; thus she becomes pregnant women. This procedure can solve certain cases of infertility, and is usually resorted to when other assisted reproduction techniques have failed, such as artificial insemination. Insemination of the oocytes can be performed by conventional technique or IVF using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), which is used mainly when there is a male sterility factor.
What is infertility?
According to the World Health Organization, infertility is a pathology of the reproductive system that makes pregna
What is infertility?
According to the World Health Organization, infertility is a pathology of the reproductive system that makes pregnancy impossible. Infertility affects the couple, both men and women, who can not have a child naturally. There are two types of infertility. Primary infertility, which affects couples who have not achieved a pregnancy after at least one year of sexual intercourse without contraception, and secondary infertility, in couples who have been able to get pregnant and can not now.
Symptoms and causes of infertility can vary between men and women
Symptoms of infertility
The symptoms of infertility can vary in men and women.
In women, the symptoms may be related to the menstrual cycle and ovulation. They can be abnormal menstruation, with bleeding more abundant or less than usual; irregular menses, when the number of days between each menstruation is different every month; amenorrhea, that is, absence of menstruation, and dysmenorrhea, very painful menstruations. Symptoms may also occur without regard to menstruation, these being the appearance of whitish flow in the nipples (without having any relation to breastfeeding) or pain during sexual intercourse.
In men, the symptoms of infertility related to sperm can be the presence of semen of yellow or green tonality, red or brown spots; ejaculations very odorous, thick, watery or with little amount. Also, they can witness symptoms unrelated to semen such as: changes in hair growth, alterations in sexual desire, erection problems and stiffness in the testicles.
What are the causes of infertility?
The causes of infertility common between men and women are:
Congenital defects of the reproductive system
Cancer, tumors, chemotherapeutic drugs, radiotherapy.
Excess of alcohol consumption
Scars due to sexually transmitted infections, abdominal surgery or endometriosis.
In women, infertility can arise as a result of:
Neoplasms in the cervix and / or uterus, ovarian cysts, polycystic ovarian syndrome.
Tubal ligation or reanastomosis.
In men, the causes of infertility can be:
Consumption of certain medicines, such as cimetidine, spironolactone and nitrofurantoin
Scarring due to sexually transmitted diseases, injury or surgery
Toxins in the environment
Vasectomy or failure of the vasovasostomy.
Can infertility be prevented?
As a general rule, if the infertility is genetic or caused by an illness, it can not be remedied. However, there are certain things that favor infertility that can be avoided:
Take preventive measures against Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs).
Do not consume drugs. Do not drink alcohol frequently or in excess.
Maintain good personal hygiene.
In women, go for a gynecological examination once a year once they are sexually active.
In men, wear loose underwear and avoid hot baths, saunas and radiations.
What is the treatment of infertility?
The methods to treat infertility in men and women are the taking of hormones to balance the hormonal imbalance, the use of supplements to improve fertility and the taking of antibiotics when suffering from infection. In women, undergoing minor surgery that removes blocking tissues or scarring of the fallopian tubes, uterus or pelvic area is another option. If this does not work, you can proceed to assisted reproduction techniques.
Laparoscopy is a surgical technique inspection of the abdominal cavity that does not require large incisions. During the laparoscopic surgical procedure, the abdomen is introduced into a laparoscope, which is a tube containing an optical system coupled to a light source. The camera allows the doctor to inspect, from a monitor, the pelvic organs and, if necessary, introduce other instruments through the same laparoscope to correct any problems. The benefits of laparoscopic surgery are numerous, so it is applied in various fields. In urology shorter hospital stay and recovery is required, there is less chance of infectious complications, decreases postoperative pain and no visible scarring. In gynecology it is used for inspection of certain diseases or gynecological processes: cysts, fibroids, hysterectomy, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, etc. Moreover, laparoscopy is used in other medical specialties and processes such as prostate cancer, the varicele or some kidney diseases.
It is called menopause to the disappearance of the menstrual periods of the woman permanently, because of the arrest of the ovarian cycle. At a certain age of the woman, the average is around 50 years, the ovaries produce less amount of estrogen and progesterone, which are female hormones. After this process the woman can no longer get pregnant. In the case of men this process is called andropause, which is the loss of sexual potency due to the low levels of the testosterone hormone in the body. The menopause process can last several years.
What symptoms does it present?
Menopause has symptoms such as changes in the menstrual cycle, insomnia, vaginal dryness, mood alteration, difficulty concentrating, hot flashes, weight gain, headache and more facial hair, among others. Some of these symptoms require medical treatment. For example, the intake of bioidentical hormones or the follow-up of a diet indicated to reduce the annoying symptoms.
Causes of menopause or why it occurs
Menopause occurs due to the low production of female hormones. Sometimes surgical menopause can occur, which is when a surgical treatment causes a decrease in estrogen. On the other hand, it is important to note that there are certain drugs such as those used for chemotherapy or hormone therapy for breast cancer that can cause menopause.
Can it be prevented?
Menopause is a part of a woman's natural development and can not be prevented. What you can do is take into account certain care to reduce the risk of long-term problems such as osteoporosis and heart disease. It is important not to smoke, exercise regularly, ingest calcium and vitamin D and control blood pressure and cholesterol.
What is the treatment?
The treatment may be a change in lifestyle or hormone therapy. The application of one or the other depends on many factors such as the severity of the symptoms, the general health and the preferences of the patient.
Amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual cycle. This is divided into primary, when the woman does not have menstrual cycle to 16 years, or secondary, when the menstrual cycle is aborted in response to a regular phase. Women who have eating disorders or undergoing intensive training programs have increased risk of amenorrhea. Amenorrhea naturally during lactation, menopause and pregnancy but can also be caused by certain medications, hormonal disorders, weight problems and stress.
Condyloma, or genital wart is a disease that affects the skin area around the anus or genitals. Also called genital warts that appear as small warts grow in size and are spreading to the genital area. They are usually asymptomatic and, therefore, patients do not even know they have it until later. Genital warts are caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). It is a sexually transmitted disease in 95% of cases, so it is transmitted from person to person by direct contact, although other methods of transmission.
Contraceptives prevent or reduce the chance of fertilization of women, thus preventing pregnancy and plan the best time to have a child. Currently, there are multiple types of contraception provided by oral, intravaginal and transdermal, injectable, by subcutaneous implant or physical means. Examples include the pill, the patch, the implant, the condom, vasectomy or IUD. Regarding its effectiveness, not all are classified in the same way, being abstinence and condom patches of the most reliable. The use of certain contraceptive methods such as condoms can prevent the contraction of sexually transmitted diseases.
The contraceptive ring ( also called NuvaRing) is a method of birth control that contains artificial forms of the hormones that are normally produced in the ovaries of women: estrogen and progestin. These prevent the ovary from releasing an egg during her menstrual cycle; the progestin, also helps to prevent sperm from entering the uterus, causing the mucus that exists in the cervix becomes thick. It is a flexible ring about five inches in diameter to the same woman placed inside the vagina. It is a monthly contraceptive: it must remain in the vagina for three weeks;after, retires for a week. However, keep in mind that it can produce side effects such as nausea, vaginitis or breakthrough bleeding.
Cystitis is inflammation of the urinary bladder. You can be infected or not. Its main symptoms are burning sensation during urination, a strong urge to urinate, blood in urine and discomfort in the pelvic area. Cystitis caused by a bacterial infection is usually treated with antibiotics. Cystitis is more prevalent in women because they have shorter urethra and is closer to the anus.
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that infects the skin and mucous membranes in humans. There are over 100 different types, most of them harmless, but some are associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer or dysplasia (abnormal cell changes in the surface of the cervix). These are acquired through sexual contact with an infected partner, and can be low risk or high risk. The low-risk types can cause genital warts. The high-risk can cause cervical, vulva, vagina and anus cancer in women; and cancer of the penis and anus in men. It is possible that the affected person has no symptoms; in the case of women, regular Pap smears can detect changes in the cervix that may end up leading to cancer. There is no cure for HPV. The treatment of cervical dysplasia that does not go away, may include surgery to remove the abnormal tissue.
The vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) is a vaccine that protects against certain strains of this virus, which can be the cause of most cases of cervical cancer and genital warts (both men and in women). The HPV vaccine can be given from 9 years, and is recommended for children aged 11 to 12. The reason is that it is more effective if it has not had any sexual contact and also because the response to it is greater than during adulthood. Papillomavirus vaccine may have some side effects, the most common of which are: fainting, dizziness, nausea, and skin reactions in the area where the shot was given.
An intrauterine device (IUD) is a plastic or metal T-shaped the gynecologist placed in the uterus of women. It is one of the most effective methods to prevent pregnancy. Once in place, it stays within the uterine cavity until it ask the doctor to remove it, and has a cord attached to the end so that women can make sure the device is in place in each period. What the IUD is to prevent sperm from getting into the egg by changing the lining of the uterus. Among its advantages in addition to its effectiveness, is the fact that it is cheap, can prevent pregnancy between 5 and 10 years, it begins to work very quickly, and the woman does not feel it in your body, so it does not cause discomfort.
Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused, generally, by infection. One cause may be lack of hygiene. But often occurs when a woman is breastfeeding, the skin of the nipples may crack and let the bacteria living on the skin penetrate the fatty tissue of the breast. The proliferation of bacteria produces an abscess it difficult exit milk ducts in the breast. The usual symptoms of breast inflammation include sore breasts, bloating, having a tender area and reddened, swollen glands in the armpits, fever, chills, fatigue, etc. To eliminate the infection, they are often prescribed antibiotics and analgesics for pain relief. Other recommendations are the local application of heat using wet cloths, extreme hygiene, removal of breast milk, getting enough rest and drink plenty of liquids. In any case, you can continue to breastfeed.
The pelvic floor is the set of muscles and ligaments surrounding the abdominal cavity at its bottom. Holding all the pelvic organs (bladder and urethra, uterus and vagina, and rectum) and ensure their normal operation.
The pelvic floor is dynamic, adapting to our movement while still maintaining adequate voltage to hold the organs inside the pelvis. When the pelvic floor is weakened, as problems that can affect urine leakage, discomfort, pain and even the fall of the abdominal organs arise.
Pelvic pain features occur in the lower abdomen as both intermittent steadily. Pelvic pain in women can occur during menstruation or during intercourse. It may be a sign that there is a problem in the pelvic organs such as the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes or the vagina. To discover the cause of the pain suffered by the patient, several clinical tests must be performed, and the treatment of pelvic pain depends on the results. Women may also experience an infection of the lining of the uterus, fallopian tubes or ovaries called pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which is caused by bacteria that cause chlamydia and gonorrhea.
The polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition that occurs when there is an imbalance in the female ovaries or adrenal glands so they produce more male hormones than normal. The result is the development of cysts (tiny fluid-filled balloons) in the ovaries. Women can develop the syndrome during the teen years or reproductive age, being more common in obese women. Although sometimes no symptoms are experienced, it is common irregular, infrequent or absent menstrual periods are given. Other effects may include infertility, pelvic pain, excess hair on the face, chest, abdomen and fingers, hair loss or weak hair, acne, oily skin or dandruff. Birth control pills can help regulate the period and reduce male hormone levels, so treatment usually polycystic ovaries. When the ovaries produce multiple small cysts (no more than 1 cm in diameter), we speak of " micropoliquísticos ovaries syndrome ", which usually have the same symptoms. Likewise, treatment of micropoliquísticos ovaries may also be based on the administration of the contraceptive pill.
Under the term "birth preparation" set of tools that are useful to prospective parents the time to prepare for the birth of a baby from the beginning of pregnancy are included. They are usually briefings in which an introduction is made to fetal development and existing medical checks, psychological aspects of pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum, the delivery operation; quarantine period after birth, breastfeeding, etc. Besides, in practical classes in preparation for childbirth, a specialized instructor Teaching the pregnant body postures and exercises that will help provide greater elasticity to the muscular structures to facilitate the birth process, and breathing and relaxation techniques that will allow greater self-control at the time of labor contractions.
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a set of different microorganisms caused by infectious diseases, which have in common that are preferably spread during sex. More than 20 known STDs, including: chlamydia and lymphogranuloma, gonorrhea, genital herpes, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), genital warts caused by human papillomavirus, syphilis and trichomoniasis. Although most STDs affect both men and women, women have the most serious health problems. Not all STDs can be cured: those that are caused by bacteria, such as chlamydia, are fought with antibiotics, but they are caused by viruses, such as genital herpes, treatment is limited to alleviate the symptoms.
Transvaginal ultrasound is a medical diagnostic technique used to examine the genitals of women, including the uterus, ovaries and cervix. Images are formed by the use of ultrasound, and the physician observes a monitor by moving a probe while going through the area. The transvaginal ultrasound is usually done during pregnancy, when abnormal findings on physical examination (such as fibroid tumors or cysts), when there is abnormal vaginal bleeding and menstrual problems, pelvic pain, certain types of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, etc. Some of the problems that can be observed are the cancer of the uterus, ovaries, vagina, and other pelvic structures, as well as other infections and congenital abnormalities.
Ultrasound is a diagnostic imaging procedure that allows you to view organs and soft structures within the body. It is made using high-frequency sound waves that are emitted by a transducer that captures the echo of different amplitudes which occurs bounce off the organs. These signals, when processed by a computer, give a series of images of the tissues examined. Today may be two-dimensional, three-dimensional or 4-dimensional images. Ultrasound is a noninvasive technique, in which no radiation used and thus is used to visualize fetuses that are being formed. This procedure can differentiate clearly the shape and size of each structure within the body. In medicine it is used to see the heart, kidneys, liver and blood vessels, among other organs.
Urinary incontinence is the inability to control the bladder, which means that you can not always hold urine. It can affect anyone, but is most common in people over 50 years. Most control problems occur because the muscles that keep the bladder are too weak or too active. If they are weak, small amounts of urine to perform actions such as laughing or coughing are lost, which is known as stress incontinence. On the contrary, if they are too active, you can have an urgent need to go to the bathroom while having little urine in the bladder (urge incontinence or overactive bladder). Other causes include prostate problems and neurological damage. The treatment of urinary incontinence depends on the cause and type, but in general usually includes simple exercises, medicines and special devices. Surgery may be helpful at times.
Thrush is an infection caused by the fungus Candida, the most common is Candida albicans. It is found in small amounts in the vagina, mouth, digestive tract and skin, often without causing infection. However, the amount of Candida albicans may increase leading to a yeast infection. Most women have a yeast infection throughout their lives.
The causes of candidiasis are:
-Be Taking antibiotics used to treat other types of infections.
- Thrush is not spread through sexual contact. But some men may have a rash on the penis after sexual contact.
Source: All information contained on this page as well as office hours available, are provided directly by the doctor who has the ability to update them at all times in order to keep the information as accurate as possible.
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