The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower abdomen whose main function is to store urine before it is expelled from the body. Bladder cancer occurs whThe bladder is a hollow organ in the lower abdomen whose main function is to store urine before it is expelled from the body. Bladder cancer occurs when cells cancersosas in the inner membrane of this body are formed, and its symptoms are painful urination or lower back, frequent urination and blood in the urine. The main risk factors are smoking and exposure to certain chemicals, along with a family history of the disease. This type of cancer can be limited to the lining of the bladder, and then called surface or spread through the lining of the bladder and even to nearby organs, which are called invasive in this case. Treatment depends on the severity and type of cancer, but may generally include radiation therapy, chemotherapy and / or surgery.
¿Qué es una endoscopia digestiva?
Una endoscopia digestiva, conocida también como gastroscopia, es una prueba que se utiliza para diagnosticar e in¿Qué es una endoscopia digestiva?
Una endoscopia digestiva, conocida también como gastroscopia, es una prueba que se utiliza para diagnosticar e iniciar el tratamiento de enfermedades del aparato digestivo superior: esófago, estómago y el duodeno.
La endoscopia se lleva a cabo a través de un endoscopio que se introduce por la boca hasta que llega al intestino y permite a los especialistas observar por la cámara que se encuentra en su extremo.
A su vez, el propio endoscopio cuenta con diversos canales en su interior por el cual se pueden introducir instrumentos que dan la posibilidad de realizar a la vez otras pruebas, como por ejemplo una biopsia o llegar a hacer tratamientos, como serían la extirpación de pólipos o nódulos y la cauterización de vasos sanguíneos sangrantes.
¿En qué consiste una endoscopia?
Una endoscopia digestiva consiste principalmente en una exploración del tubo digestivo superior, es decir, estómago, esófago y duodeno a través de la introducción de un endoscopio a través de la boca. El endoscopio es un instrumento flexible con una lente y una cámara en su parte final. Las imágenes que capta en tiempo real se muestran en monitor conforme avanza el endoscopio.
Su duración gira en torno al cuarto o a la media hora, aunque en el caso de que se encuentren aspectos inesperados o se ha de tomar algún tipo de tratamiento terapéutico o biopsia.
¿Por qué se realiza una endoscopia digestiva?
Existen diversos motivos por los cuales se puede llevar a cabo una endoscopia digestiva. Son los siguientes:
Analizar problemas del esófago, tales como esofagitis, estrechamientos o tumores
Analizar problemas del estómago: gastritis, tumores y úlceras gástricas
Diagnóstico de hernia de hiato y/o de reflujo gastroesofágico
Cirrosis hepática: en estos casos pueden darse engrosamiento en las venas del estómago y del esófago, las llamadas varices esofágicas
Hematemesis: para encontrar la causa de los vómitos con sangre
Se utiliza en casos de anemias por falta de hierro y existe sospecha de que hay pérdida de sangre en el tubo digestivo
Muestras para diagnosticar celiaquías o infecciones bacterianas
Para llegar a la salida de la vía biliar del duodeno y diagnosticar enfermedades.
A su vez, la endoscopia digestiva posee otras particularidades al margen de diagnosticar problemas en el aparato digestivo, ya que se puede utilizar para fines terapéuticos en algunos casos:
Retirar cuerpos extraños que se pueden haber quedado en el intestino superior
Dilatar el esófago en el caso de que exista un estrechamiento
Extirpar pólipos del intestino
Cauterizar vasos sangrantes o ligando varices esofágicas que puedan sangrar
Preparación para una endoscopia digestiva
La endoscopia digestiva o gastroscopia no es un procedimiento que requiera una gran preparación para llevarla a cabo.
El paciente debe evitar ingerir comida o bebida durante las ocho horas anteriores al examen, así como dejar su medicación habitual salvo que el especialista indique lo contrario.
Por otro lado, salvo norma general, al paciente no se le administrará ninguna medicación antes de la prueba, aunque en ocasiones se puede aplicar un anestésico local en la garganta para reducir las posibles náuseas.
Existen también casos en los que se administrará sedación intravenosa para relajar al paciente.
¿Qué se siente durante el examen?
La gastroscopia es una prueba indolora, y apenas dura entre tres y cinco minutos. Pese a tratarse de una prueba que no es dolorosa, el paciente notará molestias mientras se introduce el endoscopio, sintiendo constantes náuseas.
Una vez terminada la exploración, el paciente sentirá molestias en su garganta, que estará entumecida. El paciente puede tener gases debido al aire ingerido, pero estos desaparecerán rápidamente.
Significado de resultados anormales
La de la endoscopia digestiva es una prueba bastante segura en la que apenas aparecen complicaciones. De hecho, las posibles complicaciones aumentan en el momento en el que el endoscopio se utiliza para aplicar algún tipo de tratamiento.
Las posibles complicaciones serían la perforación, reacciones medicamentosas, hemorragias, alteraciones cardiopulmonares…
Avances en endoscopia
Los avances tecnológicos permiten explorar vías que antaño eran imposibles, como la vía biliar o la vía pancreática. Así, gracias a esto se pueden diagnosticar y tratar problemas que antes requerían una intervención quirúrgica.
En las zonas en las que el endoscopio no llega, existe la llamada cápsula endoscópica, que se ingiere como si fuese una pastilla y trasmite imágenes del interior del aparato digestivo a un monitor sin que el paciente sienta molestia alguna.
Kidney cancer is a malignant tumor that involves the uncontrolled spread of cancer cells in the renal tubules. It is a disorder that affects mainly toKidney cancer is a malignant tumor that involves the uncontrolled spread of cancer cells in the renal tubules. It is a disorder that affects mainly to adults over age 50 and men generally. The most common risk factors include smoking, hemodialysis and other genetic reasons (the exact causes are unknown). Symptoms of a kidney tumor usually the appearance of blood in the urine, pain in the lumbar area (near the diseased kidney), weight loss and abdominal weight gain. However, the majority of renal tumors are asymptomatic and tend to randomly detected from an x-ray test done for other reasons. It is a cancer that is detected early can be cured, and that because humans can live with one kidney, you can proceed to the removal of the malignant tumor organ to stop. But, when it is detected metastases (tumor spread to other organs) other specific treatments should be made to halt the spread of cancer cells.
What is pelvic floor reconstructive surgery?
Reconstructive surgery of the pelvic floor is a surgical intervention oriented to the reposition
What is pelvic floor reconstructive surgery?
Reconstructive surgery of the pelvic floor is a surgical intervention oriented to the repositioning of the internal organs of the female genital tract.
Reconstructive surgery of the pelvic floor can be performed in different ways: via vaginal, abdominal, laparoscopic or by combining the previous ones
Why is it done?
The objective of pelvic floor reconstructive surgery is to position the pelvic structures in order to correct urinary and / or faecal incontinence, pelvic pathologies and pelvic symptoms, as well as to protect sexual function.
What does it consist of?
Pelvic floor reconstruction surgery is performed to hold the internal organs of the female pelvis: uterus, bladder and rectum. This procedure is performed with a polypropylene mesh, so that genital problems are corrected. It can be performed in different ways: vaginal, abdominal, laparoscopic (minimally invasive) or by combining the previous ones. The most usual way to do it is through the vaginal route.
Preparation for pelvic floor reconstructive surgery
The best option for the patient before facing pelvic floor surgery is to undergo a vaginal physiotherapy treatment, in order to strengthen the musculature of the area for the intervention.
Care after the intervention
Being a minimally invasive surgery, recovery is faster and better with less time in the operating room. Patients can return to their daily life a week after having undergone the operation.
Laparoscopy is a surgical technique inspection of the abdominal cavity that does not require large incisions. During the procedure, the abdomen is introduced into a laparoscope, which is a tube containing an optical system coupled to a light source. The camera allows the doctor to inspect, from a monitor, the pelvic organs and, if necessary, introduce other instruments through the same laparoscope to correct any problems. The advantages of laparoscopy in urology are many, such that shorter hospital and recovery is required, there is less chance of infectious complications, decreases postoperative pain and no visible scarring. Laparoscopy is mainly used in processes such as prostate cancer or some renal diseases.
Balanitis is an inflammatory disease that occurs on the surface of the glans and foreskin. The causes can be bacterial infection or irritation. The most common symptoms are: swelling; itch; erythema; pain; irritation; presence of vesicles; narrowing of the foreskin (phimosis); difficulty urinating; bleeding. Treatment is usually based topical antimicrobials or creams containing cortisone. In particularly severe cases, the patient will have to undergo circumcision surgery.
Circumcision is the total or partial excision of the foreskin, which is the skin that covers the tip of the penis by a surgical procedure. It is effective to correct disorders such as phimosis (which prevents the foreskin can be retracted and thus discover the glans) and paraphimosis (most often due to an inflammation of the foreskin) treatment. Circumcision is widespread universally, and many parents prefer to practice in their newborns, not a prescription, but for cultural reasons. This is a very simple operation, which lasts only a few minutes, and does not require general anesthesia. The recovery of the patient is also very fast, within a few days and can lead a normal life.
Cystitis is inflammation of the urinary bladder. You can be infected or not. Its main symptoms are burning sensation during urination, a strong urge to urinate, blood in urine and discomfort in the pelvic area. Cystitis caused by a bacterial infection is usually treated with antibiotics. Cystitis is more prevalent in women because they have shorter urethra and is closer to the anus.
Cystocele hernia is a protrusion or bladder into the vaginal canal. It occurs when the muscle that supports the bladder wall is so weak that it is unable to maintain its normal position, so the bladder tends to move down. This weakness can cause urine leakage from the bladder when abdominal pressure increases, which is what happens when you cough or sneeze, for example. Cystocele is relatively common in women after age 40 disorder, and the likelihood increases with age at menopause, after a particularly difficult birth and when obesity, among other reasons. In mild cases, treatment consists in performing Kegel exercises, which strengthen the pelvic floor muscles. Surgery is needed in severe cases or when they fail those years.
Cystitis is inflammation of the urinary bladder. The term interstitial cystitis (also called interstitial cystic) is used to designate cases in which the condition is chronic. It is far more common in women than in men, and the cause is unknown, although it is known that it is not caused by bacterial or viral infections. People affected by this type of cystitis wall have completely swollen and painful bladder, which causes scarring of the bladder or causes stiffness, resulting in the inability to expand as it fills with urine. Symptoms vary widely, but typically include pulse urgency to urinate, urinary frequency, and even pain during intercourse. There is no definitive cure for interstitial cystitis, so treatments are usually focused on improving symptoms, and may include diet, exercise bladder control, medication, physical therapy, etc.
Phimosis is a condition in which there is congenital or accidental of the foreskin of the penis ring narrow, which makes it impossible to retract to show the glans. It is common in children and can sometimes be caused by forced retraction of the foreskin at an early age. It can also be caused by an infection or scars that form after injury. Phimosis can be corrected by a simple surgical procedure called circumcision, which involves removing excess skin around the glans (bridle), permanently leaving it exposed. Instead, parafimosis is unable to return the foreskin over the glans. Usually causes pain and some swelling, and usually occurs in children or the elderly who have not been circumcised.
The prostate is a male sex gland located below the bladder and above the rectum, and is responsible for producing the seminal fluid. The BPH occurs when you increase the size of the prostate gland due to a hormonal imbalance in men: increase female hormones (estrogen) on male hormones (testosterone). Usually occurs in people over 70 years and among the symptoms that appear gradually, are: difficulty urinating, frequent urination, urgent feeling to urinate, need to press for emptying the bladder, etc. In severe cases, prostate hypertrophy can produce absolute inability to urinate, blood in urine or impaired kidney function. Is usually treated with medications (hormones) and, in more severe cases, surgery.
Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate, a gland below the bladder of man, and that helps make semen. It is one of the most common disorders of the male genitourinary system, caused, in most cases, by bacterial infection, either chronic or acute. Other inflammatory conditions of the prostate may be chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (producing perineal or pelvic pain) and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis (the symptoms are not obvious). The most common symptoms that can lead us to think that there is an inflammation of the prostate are associated with urinary disorders. When the cause is an infection, it is treated with antibiotics for several weeks to remove bacteria from the prostate.
Penile frenulum is the skin fold task of binding the underside of the glans with the inner surface of the foreskin. Its function is to help contract the prepuce over the glans. We speak short or short bridle when the frenulum is so short that restricts movement to do the foreskin, leading to discomfort during sexual activity. One consequence is that you can get to tearing, causing pain and some bleeding, which is not a medical emergency if complicated but requires medical treatment. There are different methods for this: from the use of corticosteroid creams and conducting exercises bridle manual extension until restorative plastic surgery (fenuloplastía), elimination (frenectomy) or circumcision.
Urinary incontinence is the inability to control the bladder, which means that you can not always hold urine. It can affect anyone, but is most common in people over 50 years. Most control problems occur because the muscles that keep the bladder are too weak or too active. If they are weak, small amounts of urine to perform actions such as laughing or coughing are lost, which is known as stress incontinence. On the contrary, if they are too active, you can have an urgent need to go to the bathroom while having little urine in the bladder (urge incontinence or overactive bladder). Other causes include prostate problems and neurological damage. The treatment of urinary incontinence depends on the cause and type, but in general usually includes simple exercises, medicines and special devices. Surgery may be helpful at times.
Urodynamics or urodynamics study is a test to know the functioning of the lower urinary tract, that is, how it is stored and eliminates urine. It is used to diagnose diseases such as urinary incontinence, neurological diseases affecting the urinary tract, urinary infections, etc. The test consists of several parts. First, the patient must urinate into a container called a flow meter, which measures the amount and speed of urine. After a probe is placed through the urethra using a numbing gel that reaches the bladder, and is used to measure pressure and filled with sterile saline. Finally, urinate around the tube, which is then removed. This is a total which lasts about 30 minutes simple procedure.
Trauma is an injury to an organ or tissue due to actions or external causes. Urogenital trauma refers to injuries in the genital and / or urinary. In this case, the organ is damaged more often is the kidney, followed by the bladder, urethra, testicles and ureters. In addition, there are two types of urogenital trauma. On the one hand, they are called closed, which are the most common, and include injuries from falls from heights, traffic accidents, sports injuries and direct hits on the external genitalia. Moreover, open trauma, caused mainly by stab wounds and fire or abdominal surgery is contemplated.
A varicocele is a varicose vein tumor formed by an (unusually swollen vein) or a group of varices, usually located in the scrotum or in the spermatic cord. Usually develops during the course of puberty, most often on the left side of the scrotum, and although it is usually not harmful, in some people it can damage the testicles or decrease sperm production. If testicular varicocele causes infertility, surgery, called varicocelectomy, which involves cutting the affected veins for blood flow is performed. An alternative to surgery is varicocele embolization, which makes a much smaller incision and involves placing a catheter into the vein.
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