Under the concept of cognitive impairment alterations of one or more of the cognitive to process and remember information, including the areas of perception, attention, language and memory functions are included. Among the most common cognitive disorders include delirium, amnesia, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, etc. Also, some impairments and acquired disorders also cause cognitive disorders (such as stroke or head trauma). Among children are common disorders that affect cognitive development area of language or attention, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Currently, the vast majority of these alterations may be restored partially or completely by early diagnosis, drug therapy and personalized therapies, including a multidisciplinary treatment.