Anatomy of the Knee
The knee joint is constituted by the distal femur, the proximal region of the tibia and patella. The joint capsule, crossed in its central part ligaments and the lateral ligaments on both sides provide the stability.
The knee joint surface is covered with a smooth structure, called cartilage that allows sliding surfaces on other. Between the femur and tibia two cartilaginous structures stand as semicircular rings menisci calls and avoiding friction between bones. Synovial fluid allows the lubrication of the knee joint.
Knee osteoarthritis is a result of the breakdown, deterioration and loss of articular cartilage. The patient reports a picture of pain, swelling, limited mobility of the knee and difficulty walking.
Treatment of knee osteoarthritis
In the early stages the treatment prescribed by the orthopedist is conservative and consists of pain medication, anti - inflammatory and physical therapy.
In intermediate stages without serious deterioration of articular cartilage, hyaluronic acid infiltrations and arthroscopy can help maintain joint and pain control function:
- Arthroscopy allows washing and cleaning articulate, with brushing of the most damaged areas and cartilaginous resection of meniscal fragments anarchic. Surgery is fast, does not require hospitalization and the patient can walk with crutches from the beginning.
In advanced processes with severe joint deterioration indicated treatment is the prosthetic knee.
Conservative treatment of knee osteoarthritis
Drug treatment for knee osteoarthritis
In the painful processes we recommend starting treatment with:
- common analgesics
- Celecoxib or COX-2 inhibitors
- opiates lower
And postural hygiene measures for knee osteoarthritis
- Cryotherapy: local application of cold in acute pain and inflammation
- Avoid activities impact on the lower extremities
- It is recommended that physical activity such as swimming or cycling
Physiotherapy and rehabilitation for knee osteoarthritis
- and anti-inflammatory analgesic electrotherapy
- muscle stimulation and muscle strengthening exercises, especially the quadriceps and hamstrings group
Intra - articular injections for knee osteoarthritis
In advanced processes knee osteoarthritis, acute episodes of pain and inflammation, can be performed intra-articular steroid injections.
Hyaluronic acid to treat knee osteoarthritis
In processes of mild to moderate osteoarthritis knee with painful picture, intra - articular infiltration of hyaluronic acid, viscoelastic substance that improves the lubrication of the knee is practiced, reducing friction injury of articular cartilage.
It is also indicated as a preventive treatment to prevent or slow the progression of osteoarthritis of mild to moderate knee in patients who have no pain, but because of their professional or sports activity subject their knees to considerable strain or repeated microtrauma.
Growth factors for knee osteoarthritis
This treatment involves intra-articular application of platelet-derived products in order to reduce degeneration of articular cartilage, although scientific evidence is limited.
Surgical treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee
Surgical options for treating osteoarthritis of the knee are:
- Osteotomies alignment of the axes of the knee
- Arthroscopy surgical cleaning of the knee joint
- unicompartmental arthroplasties
- total knee arthroplasty
- Femoral-patellar arthroplasty
- Revision arthroplasties
- As arthroplasties
We use prosthetic knee tested and the best ratios results in the most prestigious international registrations.