The incidence of thyroid disease in the general population is huge. In fact, thyroid disorders are the most common endocrine diseases in Spain, and a common query thyroidectomy in General Surgery .
The thyroid gland diseases and complications
The thyroid is a small endocrine gland that produces hormones that regulate various metabolic activities of the body.
Thyroid diseases can be grouped into benign and malignant types: In mild cases, which are common diseases, thyroiditis (especially Hashimoto's thyroiditis), goiter or thyroid adenoma among others included.
Thyroidectomy, thyroid surgery
Total thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure performed for the treatment of various diseases of the thyroid is to remove the thyroid gland.
For endocrine surgeons, this is a very common procedure, but not simpler. There are some important aspects of this surgery as cosmetic regarding scars, functional voice and calcium regulation in case of total thyroidectomy. Other aspects to consider are the management of thyroid cancer, preoperative study and have a working diagnosis of thyroid pathology in order to make a correct surgical indication.
If carried out thyroidectomy, care should be taken with ligation of the superior and inferior thyroid artery to prevent damage to adjacent nerves. Recurrent nerves must be located, dissected and respected minimizing trauma to them.
Complications of thyroid surgery
Surgeons should avoid possible complications associated with thyroid surgery, such as paralysis of permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve or permanent hypoparathyroidism, which is the deficient function of the parathyroid glands that must be preserved during the procedure and that affects calcium regulation ). It is advisable to use surgical magnifying lenses that allow greater precision during surgery. Likewise, the use of nerve stimulators help confirm the presence and proper functioning of the laryngeal nerve, its use helps to identify the nerve anatomical dissection of the recurrent laryngeal nerve.
Advantages of total thyroidectomy for thyroid
Total thyroidectomy offers the advantages of eliminating the risk of recurrence and therefore is currently conducting a growing number of total thyroidectomy for benign cases. Knowledge of the clinical profiles of cases of thyroidectomy and understanding of complications after thyroidectomy (hoarseness, hypoparathyroidism) are an important public health aspect.