Adopted children are a risk group to develop certain neuropsychological diseases. Why? Many have suffered, including his background, prenatal exposure to toxic mainly the alcohol-, intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, abandonment, abuse and neglect, early and prolonged institutionalization, and emotional and psychological deprivation during it.
What are the most common neuropsychological pathologies?
- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Are children with a persistent pattern of inattention and / or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes or reduces the quality of social or academic functioning. Problem is most frequently observed, especially in international adoptees.- Disorders of fetal alcohol-spectrum: A set of alterations that children whose mothers drank alcohol during pregnancy. FAS is the severe end of these disorders.- Psychomotor retardation: This term is used in children younger than 5 years with cognitive difficulties. Their presence does not mean that necessarily have an intellectual disability in the future, although few more items are altered and the larger is this change more likely that there will be a long-term intellectual disabilities.- Intellectual disability is a disorder that begins during the development period, which implies the existence of limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior in conceptual, social and practical domains. Psychomotor retardation and intellectual disabilities have a similar prevalence between domestic and international adoption.- Microcephaly: is defined by a head circumference below the 3rd percentile for age and sex. Often it is associated with intellectual disability. It is most often seen in international adoptees.
Other conditions, such as epilepsy, cerebral palsy and autism spectrum disorders, are seen less frequently, and its prevalence is similar to that of the general child population.
We recommend the inclusion of neuropsychological assessments for pediatric monitoring of adopted children, especially if associated with several neurodevelopmental risk history, in order to detect early behavioral clinical symptoms suggestive of cognitive impairment or.
Finally, indicate that the main shock factor of these neuropsychological development is positive adoptive family atmosphere.