Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of multiple myeloma

Written by: Dr. Adrián Alegre Amor
Published: | Updated: 15/11/2018
Edited by: Top Doctors®

There are two main types of multiple myeloma: asymptomatic, they only need vigilance and usually have a very good prognosis, and symptomatic treatment they need as soon as possible.


What is Multiple Myeloma?

multiple myeloma blood Multiple myeloma (MM) is a tumor of the lymphatic system consisting of a proliferation of plasma cells, which are producing antibodies that defend us from infection and foreign substances that may enter our bodies. It is representing 10% of tumors of the blood and 1% of human tumors with 4-6 cases per 100,000 inhabitants / year. It is estimated that each year about 40,000 new cases are diagnosed in Europe, being the cause of about 25,000 deaths annually.

Normally, plasma cells found in the bone marrow in a small amount. In multiple myeloma increases excessively, an abnormal immunoglobulin produced causing anemia and bone destruction due to an overall loss of bone density, and other symptoms.

A group of plasma can become tumor cells to produce higher amounts and continuously and inadequate the same antibody or protein which can be detected in serum and urine of the patient.


Symptoms of multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma is manifested by pain in the bones, which can lead to injuries or osteoporosis. It can affect any bone but is common in the spine, chest, hips or limbs.

Other symptoms of multiple myeloma are fatigue and loss of appetite and weight.


Diagnosis of multiple myeloma

At first, according to specialists in Hematology , multiple myeloma can be diagnosed through a blood test or urine test where immunoglobulin is detected anónamal. After a series of more specific tests, among which is one of the bone marrow through a needle aspiration, and a radiological survey of all bones of the body due.


Multiple Myeloma Treatment

For asymptomatic indolent myeloma vigilance is needed only with periodic analysis. Meanwhile, with symptomatic myeloma itself that you have to perform a treatment sooner. Also, you need hydration, perform moderate exercise and follow a drug treatment to prevent bone lesions and osteoporosis, and the prevention of infections.


Complications of multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma can be a long-term illness (between 5 and 10 years), although it is difficult to cure, can be controlled with treatment. It mainly affects older people (about 65 years) although it can also occur from 40. There is a hereditary disease and has no known cause or avoidable.

The prognosis of multiple myeloma is marked by the response to treatment and the presence or absence of specific genetic alterations. In addition, depending on the associated complications following occur:

  • Renal insufficiency
  • Bone complications such as fractures.
  • Neurological complications due to compression of the spinal cord or vertebral crush accumulation of plasma cells.
  • Hypercalcemia, that is, when out calcium from bone to blood abundantly.
  • Pain caused by bone damage.
*Translated with Google translator. We apologize for any imperfection

By Dr. Adrián Alegre Amor

The renowned specialist in hematology, Dr. Alegre Love, has an extensive curriculum in treating blood diseases both malignant and non-malignant blood transfusion and genetics and molecular biology. Experienced specialist in the field of Biology and Treatment of hematologic malignancies, especially in monoclonal gammopathies and Multiple Myeloma. Dr. Alegre is a member of Team Hematologia the Chiron Clinic Hospital in Madrid where he spends private practice and at the center is also Director of the Transfusion. Currently he is Chief of Hematology, University Hospital of the Princess and Professor of Medicine at the Autonomous University of Madrid.

*Translated with Google translator. We apologize for any imperfection

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