Allergic rhinitis: common allergens and treatment

Written by: Dr. Ángel Ferrer Torres
Edited by: Top Doctors®

Allergic rhinitis is manifested as runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, nasal congestion and itching. The most common allergens are dust mites, pets, pollen or fungi. There are various treatments which vary depending on the severity of the case. However, proper treatment can prevent possible cases of asthma.

Allergic rhinitis: What isAllergic rhinitis is an inflammation of the nasal mucosa and manifests with symptoms such as runny nose, sneezing, nasal congestion or nasal itching. These symptoms usually occur for two or more consecutive days and more than an hour persist.

In allergic rhinitis usually immediate reaction when an allergen causing allergy in the patient is exposed. Difference between allergic rhinitis and common coldIn allergic rhinitis nasal mucus is transparent, it exits continuously, as a trickle, varies throughout the day and lasts longer. The cold, which is an infection, accompanied by fever or feverishness, symptoms persist throughout the day, usually lasts a week and the mucus is thicker and color.

Common causes of allergic rhinitis: AllergenThe most common allergens involved in allergic rhinitis and asthma are:- Dust mites and pets (indoor allergens)- Pollens and fungi (outdoor allergens)- Occupational allergens. Is a response to an allergen that is transported by air and which is present in the workplace. The most common causes are laboratory animals, wood, latex, enzymes, flour, mites and chemicals.

Other causes of allergic rhinitisThe most common cause of rhinitis are infectious rhinitis, also known as sinusitis, is an inflammation that affects the nasal mucosa and sinuses. This rhinitis can be viral or bacterial, and the duration of symptoms, acute or chronic.Other causes of rhinitis:- Work-related, which may be due to an allergic reaction or an irritating factor- Drug-induced rhinitis, the effect of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)- Hormonal rhinitis- Induced rhinitis food- Rhinitis temperature changes- Smoke snuff- Moisture- Strong odors, is known as vasomotor rhinitisRhinitis medicamentosa, moreover, is rebound nasal obstruction presented by patients using nasal decongestants chronically. In these cases it is necessary to remove the responsible drug and apply other drugs to treat rhinitis.

Influence of pollution in rhinitisThe acute effects of outdoor pollution in allergic rhinitis are increased symptoms or allergic rhinitis inquiries most polluted days. Contamination of motor vehicles promotes, moreover, develop hay fever.Similarly, pollution is a major cause of nasal symptoms in non-allergic people.

Diagnosis of allergic rhinitisThe diagnosis of allergic rhinitis by an allergist is based on the correlation between a history of allergic symptoms and diagnostic tests by allergic skin tests to inhalants such as dust mites, pollen, fungi and animals. The finding of positive tests without an associated clinic is of no use, since many people without symptoms may have some positive result.Where there is doubt as to whether the result of the skin test is responsible for allergic rhinitis can test nasal or conjunctival provocation, consisting of the application of the suspected allergen into the nose or eye, in order to reproduce the symptoms reported by the patient.

Treatment for allergic rhinoconjunctivitisDrug treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis should be tailored to the patient's symptoms and the severity of these.

Antihistamines are symptomatic treatment (to reduce itching and runny liquid) but is not considered to cure the disease. Therefore, it makes sense to take them to demand in terms of allergic symptoms.

We may also use topical inhaled corticosteroids, which are indicated in both allergic rhinitis and sinusitis and nasal polyposis. They are considered the most effective drugs for the treatment of rhinitis. Are effective in reducing nasal congestion, but also in the reduction of pruritus (itching), nose, sneezing and rhinorrhea (secretion). Although its effects are detected within a few hours, the optimal effect is achieved after several days or weeks in a row.

Other treatments such as nasal decongestants, with which we must be careful because they can cause drug rhinitis. And other less potent treatments for rhinitis spray treatments include local as local antihistamines, anticholinergics, chromans or oral anti-leukotrienes.

In addition to medication to control symptoms, it is available allergen vaccines (immunotherapy) which, at present, is the only specific treatment for the responsible cause of allergy and alter the natural history of allergic diseases.

Link between allergic rhinitis and asthmaThe nose is an organ with various functions. The main probably be inspired air conditioning, heat and moisten, and alteration of this function is related to the presence or severity of asthma.In patients with allergic rhinitis it has been found increased bronchial inflammation, in applying the substance causing allergy in the nose.Several studies have shown clinical improvement and inflammation that occurs in the bronchi after treatment of rhinitis with corticosteroids, antihistamines and anti-leukotrienes.If left untreated patients with allergic rhinitis are more likely to develop asthma. And, conversely, patients with allergic rhinitis treated with vaccines for allergy, usually do not develop asthma.

*Translated with Google translator. We apologize for any imperfection

By Dr. Ángel Ferrer Torres
Allergy & Immunology

Dr. Ángel Ferrer Torres is a leading specialist in allergology in Alicante. He has extensive professional experience that began in 1988 and, since then, has developed several activities as a doctor in the public and private sector, in addition to carrying out or collaborating in several investigations in the field of allergology. Currently coordinates the Allergology and Clinical Immunology Unit of the Vithas Medimar Hospital in Alicante.

In addition, in his professional career he has developed an important research work, especially in Food Allergies, Asthma and Drugs, as author of numerous scientific publications and researcher of several clinical trials of Allergy and Asthma.

*Translated with Google translator. We apologize for any imperfection

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