What is human papillomavirus?
The Human Papillomavirus DNA virus is a small family of papovaviridae. They have detected more than 100 kinds, about 40 in the lower genital tract, being involved in the development of precancerous diseases and carcinomas, especially types 16 and 18. Also in diseases such as warts condylomata, types 6 and 11.
What are the symptoms?
When warts appear it is evident contagion, but when not, sometimes the infection is asymptomatic, discovered in reviews that are performed when the patient goes to the consultation of gynecologist. In some cases the patient has bleeding or spotting small breakthrough (presence of blood droplets between menstruation and menstruation) can also present coitorragia or bleeding with intercourse.
What link is this type of virus with cervical cancer? What is the degree of impact?
Cervical cancer is a sequel of infection by papilloma virus (HPV) unresolved. Infection is necessary for the appearance of uterine cervical cancer, if there is also adjacent cofactors such as snuff, sexually transmitted diseases, promiscuity, susceptibility or immunosuppression, among others, interact with the virus and initially originate intraepithelial lesions that if progress would end in a cervical cancer (LSIL - HSIL- cervical cancer).
As for the degree of incidence, it varies by country. In Latin America, African southwest there is a very high rate, followed by Australia, aisático subeste and Central and Eastern European countries. In Europe there is talk of an incidence of 60,000 new cases per year.
How is it diagnosed? What are the risk factors?
For diagnosis of HPV have the following tests: cytology, which is used as a means of screening query or escreaning, HPV test - DNA and colposcopy. For accurate diagnosis of injury we use cervical biopsy.
The presence of HPV is necessary for the development of most cancers of cervix and its precursor lesions. HPV types in order of cumulative risk are: 16, 18, 45,31, 33, 52, 58, 35, 59, 56, 51,39, 68, 73, 82 and other. Types 18 and 45 have a cumulative risk of 73%, with 16 the most aggressive (54.6%).
As for risk factors, we mentioned that act as cofactors in the development of viral persistence. Most HPV infections returning spontaneously, but when there reinfection, sexually transmitted diseases, risk contact or promiscuity, smoking, immunodeficiency, nutritional deficiencies, etc., all can facilitate the progression of the disease.
Today we have integrated vaccination plan in the immunization schedule of women, for the prevention of disease.
Cervical cancer in our area is easily detectable, because for it to develop, before precursor lesions appear, so you can track and act on time. Why are so important revisions and screening or prevention programs that are performed in gynecology.
What is your treatment?
Regarding the treatment of precursor lesions they have been used destructive methods such as electrocoagulation, thermocoagulation, cryocoagulation and laser vaporization. The excisional treatments used today because they are also diagnoses are conization handle diathermy or laser.
Finally, cervical cancer can only be prevented by the diagnosis of precursor lesions as there is no cure for the virus. Thus, the primary objective is vaccination of all girls at an early age before their first sexual intercourse and screening or prevention programs.