The 5 main oral diseases:
- Caries : they consist of a crack that occurs in the teeth, produced by the acids of the food in its decomposition.
- Gingivitis : gum disease that is generated by a scarce or bad brushing of teeth. It consists of inflammation of the gingiva caused by an infectious process or plaque buildup.
- Periodontitis : is a progressive infection of the gingiva and loss of bone around the tooth, causing the detachment of the dental pieces.
- Oral cancer: can occur in the lips, mouth, throat, tonsils or salivary glands. The consumption of alcohol and tobacco are potent risk factors.
- Halitosis: poor oral hygiene, the presence of cavities and the habit of smoking can generate bad breath in adults.
Canker sores, mouth sores
Canker sores are open, painful sores or ulcers in the white or yellowish, non-cancerous mouth. They are usually detected by the appearance of one or more red or painful patches or protrusions whose center is whitish, in areas of cheeks, lips, tongue, palate and base of the gums.
Other symptoms of canker sores are pain, fever or swollen lymph nodes. They can be due to many causes, like viral infections, emotional stress, wounds or traumas among others.
In most cases, these sores do not require any treatment and disappear on their own, but to speed up their recovery it is best to avoid spicy and acidic foods. To avoid the symptoms of canker sores, specialists in Dentistry and Stomatology recommend the use of specific sprays to form film and relieve over-the-counter pain in pharmacies, as well as salt water rinses.
Major Jaw Problems
The main injuries that the jaw can suffer are:
- Injury Injuries
- Disorders of the joints and muscles
- Joint sounds that may be painless
- Difficulty opening or opening reduced
- Dislocated or disengaged jaw
- Tension in Temporomandibular Joint: this is the most frequent and most worrying injury to the dentist and patient, whose causes are:
o Congenital lesions
o Shock injuries
or habits such as grinding teeth
o Problems with biting
Lack of dental pieces
o Stress, traumas and emotional problems.
The symptoms of tension in the Temporomandibular Joint are intense pain in the jaw, forehead, temples, nape, cheekbones and ears, as well as difficulty opening the mouth and the presence of noises or articular clicks.
The treatments for this pathology are to relax the musculature through massages, maintained pressures, occlusal deprogrammer or a discharge splint.
When is endodontics necessary?
Tooth decay is the most frequent reason to carry out a root canal, but also the abrasion, erosion and wear of the teeth.
Some disorders that alert the need for a root canal are pulp inflammation, bruising, necrosis, inflammation around the root and dental fracture.
After endodontics, it is necessary for the patient to undergo radiographic controls to carry out a control of the evolution and prevention of fractures, to which the tooth is more susceptible due to the lack of irrigation that occurs by devitalizing the tooth. To avoid fractures, a porcelain crown is always placed to protect the tooth and restore its anatomy and function.
Dental prostheses, types and maintenance
Dental prostheses are an artificial substitute for natural teeth, made of acrylic and resin materials, special plastics and sometimes light metals. There are different types of prostheses:
- Fixed prosthesis
- Removable prosthesis
- Flexible prosthesis
- Complete prosthesis
- Implant prostheses
- Dental crown
- Dental bridge
- Dental implants
Dentistry continues to advance dental prostheses to achieve a process as natural, comfortable and fast as possible. The latest advances in dental prostheses are as follows:
- In one day it is possible to go with the prosthesis in the mouth
- Ultra thin esthetics such as zirconium implants
- Technological advances in the preparation of the prosthesis in the laboratory being the perfect adjustments
- Latest generation materials
For proper maintenance of dental prostheses, annual visits are necessary to the prosthodontist, a dental specialist who will assess the condition and correct functioning of the prostheses. Of course, it is also necessary to carry out a correct hygiene with a thorough brushing, dental floss, and even specific pads for cleaning.