Today, there are still many questions about the definition of gender violence. Therefore, it is essential answer from the field of psychology for women to know how to identify when faced with a situation of gender violence.
When is a person may be suffering gender violence?
Organic Law 1/2004 of 28 December on Integrated Protection Measures against Gender Violence, provides in Article 1.1, the definition of domestic violence as: "... violence as a manifestation of discrimination, situation of inequality and power relations of men over women is exerted on them by those who are or have been their spouses or those who are or have been linked to them by similar emotional relationship even without cohabitation. "
Therefore, they are acts of violence:
- Physical violence understood as any act of force exerted against women producing physical injury or damage from whoever is or has been a partner or is linked to it by an emotional relationship even without cohabitation. They are also considered acts of physical violence against women exercised by the men of their family, social or work environment.
- Psychological violence represented in any conduct, whether or not verbal, that produces suffering or impairment in women through threats, humiliation, obedience or submission requirement, coercion, insults, isolation, guilt or limitation of the scope of freedom.
- Economic violence, involving the intentional deprivation, not legally justified, resources that women need for their physical and psychological well - being and that of their children, or discrimination in the provision of shared resources in the field of the couple.
- Sexual violence and sexual abuse through forced sexual acts by the aggressor or not condoned by women, covering their imposition by force or intimidation of non - consensual sex and sexual abuse, regardless of whether the perpetrator has or unrelated marriage, couple, emotional or kinship with the victim.
Is there a typical profile of the victims of domestic violence?
While there are many studies that establish the profile of women abused as a woman financially dependent of their partner, with little social support and significant family responsibilities, this is a reductionist view of the problem.
For this reason, we propose to study the problem of gender violence from an ecological perspective that are considered as risk factors within the ecosystem economic stress, unemployment, social isolation and alcoholism. This perspective points as factors associated with violence, social vulnerability of women, inequality between men and women in social values and legal codes, as well as resources and power.
How can you help the psychologist in psychological recovery patient who has been a victim of domestic violence?
Most victims of abuse come to see manifesting other disorders such as anxiety, depression or poor relationship with the couple.
Patients do not manifest their situation clearly and directly, sometimes by shame and others are because not even aware that they are victims of abuse, so one of the first objectives in the consultation is to recognize that living in a violent situation .
From that moment, it is the patient identify attacks and the mechanisms used by the attacker to control him and dominate. Assistance to victims should be provided from all contexts involving the victim, especially in your family. However, there are other contexts as all health, social, legal, law enforcement resources that society makes available .... It is therefore important that the psychologist helps the patient in three fundamental aspects:
- Increase safety
- Regain control of your life
- Remedy the psychological impact of abuse
How does the therapy for victims of domestic violence?
A fundamental point that many professionals agree Psychology is the victim always believe, believe in it and its value despite what is suffering. It is important to make her feel competent so you can believe that you can get out of that.
The psychologist must show that she is not the cause of your partner is violent, but this is a problem in the emotional structure mistreat him and any woman that establish an emotional relationship.
The specialist should also give you all the basic information about how the process of violence for the pair to be she who can identify what is happening and helping protect and establish a safety plan if the situation is risky .
Similarly, the specialist must show the patient that although you have certain valid reasons for maintaining the relationship, this is detrimental to it. It should also offer support and understanding while making him understand the situation that the patient may, for various reasons, has not yet seen.
All this requires in most cases, long time, understanding and patience so that the duration of therapy will depend on many factors, the degree of violence on the victim, their age, their social support network , etc.
Moreover, it is very convenient to have reinforced individual therapy group therapy sessions.
What are the results of therapy for victims of abuse?
There are many programs and models of psychological intervention designed to intervene with battered women by their partner but research on its results is limited.
It should be noted that most of these programs is effective for a high percentage of users. Perhaps those victims where the abuse has resulted in some kind of trauma or anxiety disorders or severe depression, worse results are obtained. Therefore, treatment should be supplemented with other therapies to help you recover from these other disorders.