Periodontitis refers to periodontal diseases, which are caused by bacterial infection of the surrounding tissues structures that support the tooth, ie gum. They may be affected gums, cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone.
In early stages, only affected the gums and, as periodontal disease progresses, affected the rest of periodontal tissues. The first symptoms that appear are gingival inflammation and bleeding, being very common among the population.
Causes of periodontitis
Periodontal disease is caused by the presence of bacteria in dental plaque. After plaque formation, the bacteria remain attached and the immune system tries combat releasing substances that damage tissues. So to combat this disease is essential removal of bacteria by good oral hygiene with a good brushing or dental treatments depending on the stage of the disease.
If the plaque is not properly removed can cause gingivitis, causing inflammation of the gums. Gingivitis is a type of periodontal disease nondestructive and reversible. But, if not treated, it can progress and eventually lead to periodontitis which is a more aggressive disease can cause tooth loss. So to prevent periodontal disease is necessary to good oral hygiene and regular checkups with the dentist .
When hygiene is poor and plaque is not properly removed, plaque accumulates to be finished by inserting between the gum and tooth. The removal of the plate is more complicated because it is protected by the gums and this causes bacterial multiplication is favorable and inflammation persists in the gingiva. Due to inflammation, the gum off the tooth creating a space called periodontal pocket where pathogenic bacteria inhabit. This plaque, if not removed, eventually calcify forming calculation. The bacteria adhere more easily to the calculation as it has a rougher than the surface of the tooth surface.
If periodontal disease progresses, inflammation can eventually cause bone loss and sometimes the loss of teeth. This process is gradual and can be more or less quickly depending on multiple factors but if detected and treated early, the disease can be stopped. Periodontitis is always preceded by gingivitis and one of the most obvious signs is the gingival bleeding when brushing is done. When the disease progresses to periodontitis, sometimes there is no sign that tells us that the situation is getting worse. Still, over time we will see that the bleeding has increased and can be spontaneous, tooth mobility, the teeth look longer roots to be exposed due to gingival recession and bone loss and may also cause pain. In the patient smoked, gingival bleeding may not appear because nicotine acts as a vasoconstrictor and this may mask the disease.
Periodontitis: risk factors
There are several risk factors that increase the chances of periodontitis and promote their development. Some of the risk factors are most important systemic diseases such as diabetes, smoking and stress. The smokers have a higher chance of developing the disease than nonsmokers.
Treatment of periodontitis
Periodontal treatments as they could be bone grafts or implants are less successful in smokers. In fact, the disease progresses much faster. 90% of cases where treatment does not work against periodontitis, the patient is a smoker.
The main treatment of periodontitis is to remove bacterial plaque. With proper treatment, the disease can be stopped. It is imperative to oral hygiene instructions, advice and tips for the patient to eliminate the cause of the disease and, once removed, can maintain its healthy state.
Besides oral hygiene performed by the patient, the dentist or gum specialist, periodontist, you must remove all calculus and plaque those places where the patient can not access, such as periodontal pockets. Sometimes, if the treatment is not enough to hygiene are given antibiotics to combat pathogenic bacteria. Corrective surgery is needed in cases where there are spaces colonized by bacteria that.
Once the maintenance treatment phase in which periodic visits will be conducted to check the status and inflammation of the gums, to ensure that the disease has stopped is very important. It is so important to treat the disease as having sensitized the patient so that in the maintenance phase is able to follow the instructions of oral hygiene to maintain the proper bacterial level.
Edited by Noelia García Pino