The parathyroid glands are regulating blood calcium content. In case of excessive production of parathyroid hormone, the only treatment is surgery .
The parathyroid are some endocrine glands, usually 4, located in the neck, behind the thyroid, whose mission is to secrete a hormone called parathyroid hormone (PTH), which regulates the blood calcium content. This mission is important because calcium is necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system and muscle mineral, besides regulating the maintenance of good bone structure.
Its main diseases
The disorder is usually given is the excessive production of parathyroid hormone (hyperparathyroidism), which is extracted too much calcium from bone and leads to blood. This causes a softening of the bone and, less commonly, symptoms such as renal colic, calculations, apathy, fatigue, muscle weakness, hair loss and brittle nails, among many others.
The cause of this increased formation of parathormone usually, almost 100% of cases, a benign disease, either by an increase in all of the glands (hyperplasia) or a benign tumor (adenoma). In the latter case it may happen that the gland is one affected (most common), or more than one.
Treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism
The only is surgery. This is all the glands removed overworked. The human body can be adjusted perfectly with just half gland, you do not need the four. Surgery has as main risk of recurrent nerve injury that moves a vocal cord, with consequent voice disorders, among others. An added problem is the difficulty of finding these small glands, 0.5 to 1 cm, similar to fat and not always located in the same place, so it is advisable to be treated by experienced surgeons because, for these reasons the need for reoperation occurs more frequently than in other diseases.
It is important to know that this disease has nothing to do with the thyroid or the elevations of parathyroid hormone due to kidney problems or low levels of vitamin D.