A thyroid nodule is a localized growth that occurs in the thyroid gland s. The node can be unique or, more often, multiple, forming a multinodular goiter.
In general, it has a spherical shape, of varying size, the patient can see, to look in a mirror. This node is located on the front and lower part of the neck ( at the sides and below the Adam's apple ) and swallowing characteristically rises and falls.
Incidence and symptomatology
Approximately between 4-8 % of the population has a thyroid nodule and generally is more common in women than in men.
In most cases, the cause of the appearance of thyroid nodules is not well known and often there is a significant genetic component.
The most common symptom is the presence of observation or palpate the neck of a“bulk”.
Less commonly, there may be a dry cough in chronic form, initiation or increased snoring during sleep, difficulty breathing, alteration swallowing change nel tone
Some patients report an increase in secondary thyroid function at node in this case may have crisis tachycardia and / or cardiac arrhythmia, excessive sweating.
The proper diagnosis
Inspection and palpation by a medical specialist is the best way to identify the presence of one or more thyroid nodules.
Later is desirable to have a thyroid ultrasound that reveals whether the nodules are solid, cystic or mixed. Sonography also allows us to make a puncture - aspiration is carried out with fine needle. This represents the most accurate and reliable diagnostic method. The precision is located around 95 %.
Most thyroid nodules usually maintain a stable behavior but periodic reviews are necessary (6-9 months) to allow early detection of changes in the size, general characteristics or function requiring treatment vary readjust.
However, nodules with suspected or diagnosed with a benign or malignant tumor biopsy must be treated. surgically also need to be cysts that recur after surgery or nodules that cause puncture or aesthetic tuning deformation (>3 cm).
In cases where a surgery, according to the diagnosis necessary, a hemithyroidectomy or total thyroidectomy with histmectomia be held.
With new surgical techniques and the use of modern surgical devices that coagulate blood vessels very effectively, thyroid surgery is very safe.
We have managed to reduce operative time and bleeding compared with classical technique and also we get incisions of smaller size involving less postoperative pain, a faster recovery and better aesthetic results.