A malformation is an anomaly of a part of the body that occurs within the first three months of pregnancy. This is due to an abnormal embryonic development, that is, structures have not been created correctly. By the term congenital we understand that the patient is born with the anomaly, and it should be noted that all malformations are congenital.
The malformations that compromise the skeleton affect 2 out of every 1,000 newborns .
These affect the upper and lower extremities equally, and there are different types of malformation. Some are very apparent but others may be unnoticed or diagnosed by chance.
Causes of malformations
35% of the malformations are produced by an alteration in the circulation of the limb while it is being formed, 30% is due to genetic alterations , while we do not know the cause of 32% of the cases. A series of factors can also favor the appearance of malformations, such as some medications, viral infections, X-rays, tobacco, alcohol or some drugs.
Treatment of malformations
Before and during pregnancy, good prevention is always the best treatment. Taking folic acid supplements helps prevent the appearance of spina bifida in the child, a defect in the closure of the spine. It is also beneficial to avoid exposure to agents that can produce a malformation and always consult the doctor before taking any type of medication.
Ultrasound controls during pregnancy are basic for prenatal diagnosis, and can establish a prognosis of severity. Regardless of the prenatal diagnosis, all newborns should be explored by the pediatrician and if a skeletal malformation is identified, it should be evaluated by the pediatric orthopedist.
Despite all the above, it is worth noting that most skeletal malformations have little aesthetic and functional repercussion, and their treatment is usually simple.