The otoneurology is a medical subspecialty that is responsible for studying and treating diseases that affect the inner ear. In surgical aspect, this specialty is also responsible for treating diseases affecting nerves extending in the proximity of the inner ear.
How to study the otoneurology vertigo?
Because the inner ear is connected to the Central Nervous System (CNS), responsible for interpreting the signals emitted from the first, the neurological processes will have a very important role in the otoneurology.
What role does the lobby in the study of vertigo?
The inner ear is divided into a front part (cochlea) and posterior (lobby). The lobby is responsible for detecting movement and orientation of the head and inform the CNS. This information will be very important when considering the balance of the patient. Currently, it means the balance as a reflex arc. First you must gather information through a triple gateway:
- The lobby: movement and orientation of the head
- Vision: reports on the relative position with respect to own individual environment
- The somatosensory system: reports on the position of each body part
This information is analyzed in the CNS to finally develop a suitable motor response. Therefore, the study of equilibrium can not stick to study hall, but involves virtually the entire nervous system and musculoskeletal system.
Another feature of the lobby is the vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR): if we detected the movement of the head, this information is transferred to the extraocular muscles that move the eyes. Thus, the VOR functions as a stabilization system gaze. For this reason, the study of eye movements will be one of the most important parts in the study hall and thus balance.
What role does the cochlea in the study of vertigo?
The cochlea is responsible for transforming the sound waves into electrical signals understandable by the nerve centers. Therefore, the cochlea is the organ of hearing.
The study of hearing is also paramount, and is done by professionals in Otolaryngology by different variants of audiometry. This study not only be responsible for the hearing loss (deafness), also associated phenomena. These could be the hypersensitivity to sounds (hyperacusis) or beeps or no perception of sounds (tinnitus).