In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a technique of assisted reproduction that consists of the union of the sperm and the ovum outside the reproductive system of the woman , that is, in a laboratory. Currently, to carry out IVF, the most commonly used technique is the ICSI or sperm microinjection , by which the biologist introduces a single sperm within the cytoplasm of the ovule. Previously it was the classic or traditional IVF, that consists simply in putting in contact the ovules and the sperm so that they fecundate alone.
The process consists of stimulating the ovulation of the woman during 10-12 days, obtaining after a ovarian puncture a certain number of ovules that, in turn, attached to the sperm give rise to a number of resulting embryos, which are transferred to the uterus (maximum 3, usually 2 and sometimes only one), after 2, 3 or 5 days. If there are surplus embryos, they are frozen for a second chance if the first pregnancy has not been achieved, or for a second child if it has been produced.
Who can resort to in vitro fertilization?
In vitro fertilization is indicated when the fallopian tubes are altered or obstructed , when there is alteration in the amount and / or motility and / or morphology of the sperm and also when simpler techniques such as artificial insemination have failed.
Incubators with Embryoscope
One of the most recent advances in IVF is the appearance of incubators with time lapse (better known as Embryoscope ) that allows to know in detail the evolution of the embryo, every 15 minutes, maintaining stable environmental conditions during this time, since everything is seen through from a computer. This is a big difference compared to the traditional incubator, in which you have to open the door every day to see the embryos under a microscope.