What is dyslexia?
Dyslexia is a disorder that hinders integration with sense of linguistic symbols and perceptive. It comes from an alteration neuropsychological dysfunction.
It is very common?
It is a very common disorder but in many cases, is detected too late. It is estimated that between 15% and 20% of the white population has dyslexia, Anglo - Saxon, about half in Latin languages. It affects more boys than girls.
What is the cause?
Dyslexia can be produced by different reasons. Among the most common factors are genetic (as recessive chromosomes), family and social (disadvantaged socioeconomic status, lack of intellectual stimulation) risk, intrauterine and postnatal factors (drug use by the mother, fetal distress, etc ... ) and neurological disorders (specific or non - specific brain damage).
How dyslexia in children diagnosed?
When you notice that your child has poor phonological awareness and reading difficulties at the beginning of learning reader (made errors of omission, additions, substitutions of letters and words). In preschool children with normal intelligence, alteration is determined as a great immaturity in psycholinguistic skills and abilities initiation of reading. In school-age children, also of normal intelligence, the alarm signal is reflected in a delay of two or more years in perceptual-language skills associated with reading. You always have to think of a dyslexia in a child than in the 2nd quarter of 1 Primary has a very slow reading speed, with all the aforementioned difficulties or do not start reading.
What skills, besides reading, dyslexia affects?
Dyslexia causes difficulties in writing, spelling, learning new languages and reading comprehension. Also, a less common form leads to problems in mathematics. On the other hand, it can sometimes affect laterality and oral language. Finally, it is likely that if good treatment is not performed, can affect even self - esteem.
Dyslexia: what treatment
The main treatment of dyslexia is a diagnostic and prescriptive instruction that focuses on neuropsychological dysfunction process, using a methodology and specialized teaching techniques for working the-linguistic perceptual skills. For This will require the help of a specialist in child psychiatry who works phonological awareness and reading automation. On the other hand, in older children strategies are also used to compensate for deficits, such as word processors. In addition, a school intervention that suits the subjects of languages your chances will be necessary.
What can family members and people around?
Collaboration, both family and teachers, it is essential for a good prognosis of the disorder. In this sense, teachers must know the causes of the disorder and actively help by implementing improvement programs and processes, while continuing adaptation in this regard. It can also help not give public reading (if the child / what goes wrong), providing more time for exercises or tests not make copy statements at a speed higher than its level, limit content for review or highlight the content, not penalize examinations spelling, adapt reading books the reader student level, avoid exhaustive correction of misspellings, enhance written in short sentences expression, leaving the calculator in math exercises and ensure that He understands the statements.
On the other hand, parents can help primarily by positive reinforcement and patience, buying books that motivate them together and alternately read the content of school textbooks and also use compensation strategies (such as using word processors) , help with homework and the organization of time and material.
Dr. Jordi Andreu Sasot Llevadot and Jenifer
Edited by Noelia García Pino