Basic information on Diabetes Mellitus

Written by: Dra. Isabel Martínez Fernández
Published: | Updated: 17/11/2018
Edited by: Top Doctors®

Diabetes Mellitus is a disease in which there is no insulin or it can not be used properly. Insulin is a hormone that is produced in the pancreas, called pancreatic β cells and whose mission is to allow glucose to enter the cells of our body.

Glucose is the energy that our body needs to carry out its functions, that is, our gasoline.

When glucose does not enter the cells it can be, because there is no insulin (Diabetes Mellitus type I and final phase of Mellitus type II), or because the cells of our body do not respond to insulin and it can not enter the glucose inside them (Diabetes Mellitus type II).

Causes of Diabetes Mellitus

In Diabetes Mellitus type I, what happens is the destruction of the β cells, in general of autoimmune cause, that is to say our immune system is altered and does not recognize as "their" the B cells of the pancreas, attacks them and destroys them. Some viruses can cause this situation.

On the other hand, in Diabetes Mellitus type II, the problem is related to obesity, and is more common in people over 40 years, although, currently, its incidence among young people is increasing.


Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

Both in the treatment of Type I Diabetes Mellitus and type II, the goal is to restore abnormal glucose levels. In type I, a substitute treatment of insulin or insulin analogues is applied. In Type II, in the most advanced phases of the disease, a substitute treatment of insulin or analogues is applied, in previous phases of the evolution, a treatment with oral antidiabetics.

If not treated in time, Diabetes Mellitus can have several consequences.

Among them we can distinguish acute complications and chronic complications .

In the acute, basically 2: Hyperosmolar states (or "diabetic coma) and hypoglycemia .

Regarding chronic complications, almost our entire body is affected. We found the damage of the small blood vessels, the damage of the peripheral nerves, the so-called diabetic foot that can cause hard-to-cure wounds and the poor blood supply to the feet, can lead to lacerations and eventually to the amputation of the lower extremities.. In addition, these chronic complications can result in damage to the retina, kidney damage, damage to large blood vessels, cerebrovascular damage, high blood pressure or skin damage.


*Translated with Google translator. We apologize for any imperfection

By Dra. Isabel Martínez Fernández

Dra. Isabel Martínez Fernández is an expert nephrologist in Obesity and Nutrition. He currently heads the Nephrology Service of Hospital Quirón Bizkaia. His reputation has earned him to be authored and co-authored numerous articles, books and guides and nephrology. He is also a member of many medical associations.

*Translated with Google translator. We apologize for any imperfection

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