Currently talking about bone grafts is talk of Biomaterial, their management is essential in the reconstructive oral and maxillofacial surgery modern. Specifically in the world of implantology and facial aesthetics obtaining stable results over time in the presence of a defect depends on the type of reconstruction chosen.
Biomaterial could be defined as that natural substance or combination of substances, or pharmacologically active inhertes, synthetic or used for repair, replacement or tissue augmentation.
If the bony biomaterials, we can classify them according to their provenance: autogenous bone ( oneself), allogenic ( bone from another, but of the same species ), xenogenic bone ( and from different species ), and synthetic bone.
The different grafts are used according to the characteristics of the defect and patient risk factors.
Returning to the world of dental implants, there are few cases that require a reconstruction with own bone, synthetic bone being and bovine hydroxyapatite materials most used.
For the placement of implants in ideal positions from an aesthetic and functional point of view most of the time is needed bone reconstruction using biomaterials, the benefit to the patient is clear, since the implant correctly positioned prosthetic design allows stable over time, easy to maintain and with an aesthetic level similar to the natural tooth.
The use of such grafts involves a minimum risk to the patient because they are sophisticated techniques and minimally invasive surgical, carried out by properly qualified and trained professionals. These risks must be customized to each patient and case.
The success of implants placed in bone grafts is similar to those placed on the bone itself, which according to current scientific literature and a minimum standard of quality should not be less than 96 % of the implants placed.