The aim of specialists Gynecology is to prevent high-risk pregnancies although it is not always possible. It is therefore important to attend a preconception consultation (pre-pregnancy) to assess in detail the mother to identify potential risk factors.
What is a high-risk pregnancy?
High-risk pregnancy who carries a greater chance of complications that can cause illness or death to the mother or baby is considered. These complications can occur before, during or after pregnancy.
Causes of a risky pregnancy
There are different causes that determine that a pregnancy is high risk. The Spanish Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics risk factors classified into 4 groups:
- Sociodemographic factors: maternal age (under 15 or over 35 years), weight, addictions (such as snuff), no monitoring of pregnancy or labor risk.
- Medical history: hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, kidney disease, epilepsy, among others.
- Previous pregnancy history: repeat abortions, birth defects, premature birth, intrauterine growth retardation, among others.
- Disease in the current pregnancy: multiple pregnancy, hypertension in pregnancy, recurrent urinary infections, placenta previa, abnormal amniotic fluid, etc.
Levels of risk of pregnancy
Depending on the amount or type of risk that has the mother, we differentiate 4 types of risks: non-existent, low, medium or high.
Monitoring of pregnancy varies depending on the risk to have it. High-risk pregnant women have a more strict and complete control, and a series of special care. This leads sometimes to specialized referral maternal fetal neonatal intensive care units. A specific protocol for each patient based on their risks, aimed at prevention and early diagnosis of complications applies.