The dermoscosmética is part of the Dermatology that is primarily responsible for healthy skin. Dermocosmética demand increases annually parallel to the aging population.
Skin aging is continued throughout life, progressive process and unavoidable. The causes of skin aging are mainly two:
- Chronological aging: skin ages due to the passage of time.
- Exogenous aging: Due to the impact of external agents such as ultraviolet radiation, exposure to chemicals (nicotine, alcohol) and diet, among others.
Symptoms of skin aging
The symptoms that the skin aging are several, among them:
- Pigmentation disorders: actinic lentigines are often the first lesions related to skin aging. It is brownish spots of varying sizes. They are located mainly in coprorales sun-exposed areas like the face and back of hands. They are more common in people with light skin. Another manifestation is the appearance of small white spots on sun exposed, which are more obvious body areas when browned.
- Dry Skin. It can be seen at any age, but is very common in elderly. The skin takes on a dull appearance, tarnished and frequent occurrence of cracking, cracking, flaking and itching.
- Wrinkles, furrows and folds: folds on the forehead and around the mouth are usually the first to appear, usually after age 30. They are conditioned by the mobility of facial muscles. From the 40, appear more superficial folds around the eyes and neck. In elderly patients appears thinned skin, thin and transparent.
- Vasodilation: another manifestation of skin aging are vascular dilations (telangiectasias) which appear mainly on the face as a result of the effects of solar radiation and legs. With the progression of aging secondary spontaneous or purple spots small strokes that result from increased skin fragility can occur.
How to prevent skin aging
The effect of ultraviolet radiation is essential in the process of skin aging. Photoprotection measures are the essential basis of prevention of photoaging. This prevention should begin in childhood and suit the skin type of each individual. Avoid sunburn is crucial. Among the measures of photoprotection physical methods such as shirts, wide-brimmed hats and sunglasses are included; and the use of photoresists as creams, ointments or solutions.
Treatment of skin aging
Among the non - invasive treatments of skin aging include retinoic acid, alpha hydroxy acids, hydroquinone and antioxidants (like vitamin C). These treatments are based on, preferably night, daily application of these substances in creams or gels. They are slow effect and good results are obtained in improving fine wrinkles. Sometimes, they can cause irritation and / or redness, which can be minimized by applying low concentrations that should be increasing progressively the early days.
Among the invasive treatments include chemical peeling, mechanical dermabrasion, microdermabrasion, laser therapy, fillers, botulinum toxin and cosmetic surgery.
- Chemical peels: involves the application of a chemical that produces a controlled and promote skin regeneration and correct the defects of age damage. It can be very superficial, superficial, medium or deep, depending on the chemical that is applied. It is useful for treating fine wrinkles, superficial scars, photoaging and pigmentation disorders, among others.
- Microdermabrasion: is a physical exfoliation surface technique in which microcrystals are applied to the skin surface allowing a gradual abrasion. It is a controlled process and that good results are obtained.
- Dermabrasion: is a more invasive technique described above. a rotating cutters are used and remove the surface layers of the skin. Generally, it is necessary to use anesthesia.
- Laser therapy: there are various types of laser which can be used for the treatment and prevention of skin aging. It is the medical specialist who indicates which device should be used in each case. Like almost all other methods can be combined with other procedures.
- Fillers: they used to add volume and produce changes in surface and texture of the anatomical location injected. Several types of fillers. The choice of material depends on the desired anatomical site treated, background, expectations and patient preferences.
- Botulinum Toxin Botulinum toxin type A is a neurotoxin that paralyzes the muscles exposed to it. Is the direct injection into muscle. No local anesthesia is required and can resume activities of daily life immediately after. The duration of benefits ranges from three to six months.
- Cosmetic Surgery: The rhytidectomies are intended plasty correction creasing or wrinkling. Blepharoplasty (eyelid plasty or correction) is one of the most used. Other techniques are liposuction and facelift.
There are many treatments for skin aging, but prevention measures are essential. Sometimes, for optimum results should be combined different techniques, taking into account the expectations and needs of each patient.