Orthognathic surgery is a surgical procedure performed in the specialty of oral and maxillofacial surgery in order to restore the dimensions, proportions and correct functionality of the facial skeleton and harmonizing the relationships that must exist between the maxilla and mandible.
When to perform orthognathic surgery?
Orthognathic surgery is indicated for all patients with an imbalance in the size of the jaw, mild or sharply.
The most frequent cases in which this surgery is performed are:
- Lower jaw (mandible) Delayed (Class II): In this case, the patient's jaw has not grown enough respect to the upper jaw and, consequently, the lower teeth fail to contact with the top, producing an important functional problem .
- Lower jaw (mandible) Elongated (Class III): Here the patient's jaw has outgrown the upper jaw, so the lower teeth are ahead of the upper and has serious functional and aesthetic problem.
- Mandibular asymmetry: In this case the patient suffers from hoarseness night because they have a very small jaw and, accordingly, the language leaves no room for the entrance and exit of air in the nighttime breathing.
- Open bite: Patients with a deformation where the upper anterior teeth (shovels and dogs) have a front angle, so do not contact with the bottom. In this case the patient may even bite food.
- Gingival smile is when the patient, smile, exposed in an exaggerated manner maxillary gingiva due to excessive growth of the jawbone.
Benefits of orthognathic surgery
The main benefit of orthognathic surgery and, most importantly, all patients become occluded with all his teeth in a stable and orderly. Another benefit is the aesthetic, as this operation is achieved by harmonizing the profile lines and face that were previously unbalanced and / or abnormal.
Orthognathic surgery risks
In the facial region extending many nerve structures that can be injured during this type of surgery. However, these complications are rare but should be explained to the patient.