What is asthma and what are its causes
The Spanish Association of Pediatrics and Pediatric Pulmonology define asthma as "A disease that is characterized clinically by episodes of wheezing (whistling or whistling in the chest), dyspnea, cough and chest tightness; physiologically by processes of obstruction -generally reversible- of the airways and bronchial hyperreactivity; histologically due to chronic inflammation of the airway. "
Asthma is the result of several factors and does not obey a single cause:
- The genetic predisposition
The most important factor that predisposes to the appearance of asthma is Atopy. Respiratory, drug and food allergies are an essential risk factor in children.
- Favorable factors
Respiratory infections, exposure to tobacco smoke, pollution, climatic factors, emotional factors, hormonal influences, gastro-esophageal reflux, etcetera.
Symptoms of asthma
The main symptomatology of these patients is:
• Wheezing: whistling or whistling produced by air passing through narrowed airways.
• Cough: sometimes as the only sign. The nocturnal appearance of the cough, the presentation during the physical exercise or coinciding with the exposure to important concentrations of allergens (pollen, dog, cat, etc.), make us suspect asthma.
• Intermittent breathing faster and faster.
• Oppression in the chest that children sometimes refer to as pain.
Possible treatments for asthma
Treatments should be individualized according to the severity of symptoms in each patient and include: avoiding of the triggers, maintenance and crisis medication, education and changes in lifestyle. As maintenance medication there are: inhaled corticosteroids, long-acting beta2 mimetics and antileukotrienes. For seizures inhaled and anti-inflammatory bronchodilators are used orally. We also have immunotherapy (vaccines).
More and more children affected by asthma
It is the most frequent of chronic diseases in childhood.
This ignorance is due to the fact that the symptoms of the disease are sometimes atypical and not valued by the family or the doctor.. Even so, you can live a normal life with asthma, with proper care and medication.