Angina is the clinical manifestation of pain or tightness in the chest. The cause is the lack of blood supply to the coronary arteries, in most cases caused by cholesterol plaque. Medical advances in cardiology to detect these blockages, even clean them. However, if the blockage is severe, it will be necessary to resort to surgery or coronary bypass.
Causes of chest pain
The pain of angina is usually manifested in times of stress or stress. What causes the blood supply deficit that brings oxygen and nutrients needed for effective contraction of the heart. At heart, the heart is a muscular engine whose operation depends on the contribution of its fuel, which comes through the "pipes" (coronary arteries). Therefore, any narrowing, generated in most cases by a plate cholesterol coronary artery wall, can decrease the flow to the heart muscle. At that time the patient feels a tightness or pain in the chest that is what defines angina.
Symptoms and diagnosis of angina pain
A patient with angina will usually have pain or tightness in the chest, most often in the center or left side, but that can be extended to the neck, arms, back or even the jaw.
The diagnosis is mainly based on the patient's clinical story. Cardiologists also have tests to diagnose the presence or absence of coronary lesions or strictures or condition may determine angina. The most used is the stress test on treadmill belt where, simultaneously exercise, determine the electrocardiographic tracing, blood pressure and clinical behavior of the patient.
More recently we have available a radiology test that can perform an anatomical reconstruction of the coronary arteries by CT (Computed Tomography). However if any of these tests raises the suspicion of coronary obstruction, it is inescapable perform a cardiac catheterization.
Treatment of angina When surgery is necessary?
Cardiac catheterization is the only way to access and directly visualize the coronary arteries. Currently there are accessed by puncturing a peripheral artery in the arm or groin and advancing very thin catheters to emergency coronary artery. With radiological radiopaque contrast visualization in real time we can examine the coronary arteries.
We can also clean blocked arteries by inflated balloon to reduce the mass of cholesterol that blocks the artery or by placing tubular nets containing compressed and coronary obstruction (coronary angioplasty). However, if the coronary catheterization reveals blockages that are too numerous or extensive, the patient is a better candidate for coronary bypass surgery or coronary.
Healthy living minimizes the risk of angina
Both treatment modalities, coronary angioplasty or bypass surgery may be final if new coronary lesions are generated. For this it is essential to a healthy lifestyle with exercise and control the risk factors that generate cholesterol deposits in our arteries, high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking and high blood cholesterol.