The most common type of kidney cancer is called renal cell carcinoma (RCC). It is a progressive growth tumor (about 1 cm per year) that is often unique. Patients with bilateral tumors, of this disease at an early age and those with multiple tumors may have a genetic predisposition to form CCR, as occurs in patients with Von Hippel Lindau disease -VHL.
Patients with kidney cancer risk
As discussed above, there are groups of patients who need to periodically monitor, since at high risk of developing kidney tumors. This is the case of patients and relatives of patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease that are available for genetic testing for VHL gene mutation. Both patients with VHL, as diagnosed with another disease called tuberous sclerosis and patients with renal failure terminal receiving treatment by dialysis for prolonged periods of time are a high risk group for development of kidney cancers, so They should be evaluated by ultrasound or CT periodically to detect tumors at an early and curable stage.
Symptoms and diagnosis of kidney cancer
Until the widespread use of ultrasound and other diagnostic techniques such as CT, many renal cell carcinomas (RCC) , or kidney cancers were diagnosed in advanced stages of the disease, studying with certain symptoms such as flank pain, palpable mass in the abdomen or blood in the urine (hematuria). This was because the kidney is an internal organ and small kidney tumors can not be seen or felt by physical examination, and the fact that there are no blood or urine tests that allow early diagnosis in the general population.
Fortunately, an increasing number of CCR are found causally during imaging studies (such as ultrasound or CT), requested for reasons such as abdominal pain caused by stones in the gallbladder, rib pain, etc.. In these cases can be diagnosed asymptomatic renal tumors. This diagnosis at early stages of the disease allows treatment more effective, with very high rates of survival.
Treatment options for kidney cancer
There are various treatment options recommended by experts in urology to address kidney cancer:
Surgery is the main treatment for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), achieving a cure in over 80% of cases. The surgical technique of choice is usually laparoscopy. This technique is as effective as conventional surgery, but is less aggressive, allowing the patient to recover more quickly.
Large tumors (larger than 4 cm) normally require complete removal of the organ (radical nephrectomy). In tumors less than 4cm (sometimes also in tumors larger than 4 cm, depending on the location and circumstances of the patient), the technique of choice is partial nephrectomy, which can be preserved most intact kidney, offering long overlap those of radical surgery within a healing results.
Laparoscopic surgery is performed by inserting, in the abdominal wall, four to five small cylindrical tubes called trocars. Through these instruments that allow the expanded vision and treatment of the affected kidney with excision of all or part thereof is introduced. The removal of the kidney (tumor or only in case of partial nephrectomy) is performed after placing it in a bag, extending one of the trocar incisions to about 5 cm.
2) Treatment widespread metastatic disease
Although curative treatments for kidney cancer involve local tumor excision when the cancer has spread beyond the kidney it is necessary to treat all areas of the body (systemic therapy). There is, at present, the possibility of treating patients with metastatic renal tumors by orally administered that increase the life expectancy of the patient, thus providing very improved quality of life treatments.
3) Future TherapiesIt is investigating the causes of cancer and ways to prevent it, as well as new and more effective treatments with fewer side effects. In this sense, they are beginning to understand the ways that cause cells to become cancerous kidney. Much research is now focused on how mutations in genes on chromosomes 3, 7 and 17 lead to renal cancers, and how they affect genetic changes seen in tumor cells in their ability to grow and invade other structures. It is expected that this information is useful for development in the future, new routes and more effective treatment with fewer adverse effects.
Edited by Patricia Crespo Pujante