For specific cardiac evaluation, an athlete must undergo a health questionnaire, anamnesis and complete clinical history, plus a thorough cardiovascular examination and an electrocardiogram. In the usual athletes it should also include conducting a stress test and an echocardiogram.
The stress test, using the latest equipment, is performed by cardiologists and test involves subjecting the heart to physical exertion and assess the response of his coronary arteries indirectly through electrocardiogram. The pressure response and heart rate also know by conducting a stress test.
It is a study of gases, with a precise analysis of the aerobic and anaerobic threshold and maximum oxygen consumption. The system provides information ergospirometry oxygen transport in the body, mediated by the response of the cardiovascular, respiratory system and metabolism. With it, we value parameters indicating the functional ability of the athlete and to control its evolution at different times of the season, and to recommend appropriate interval heart rates for exercise. These tests must be individual, personalized with treadmill or bicycle.
The echocardiogram is essential in the study of the heart of the athlete. With this technique, we obtain a morphological assessment of the heart, with monitoring and control of the athlete. You can diagnose most major diseases that may be related to sudden death. Without an echocardiogram, you can not perform a program of sports medical examination, it is the diagnostic technique that gives us more information from the cardiovascular standpoint.
Such tests should be performed annually, both professional athletes and those non-professionals, and especially in those athletes with cardiovascular risk factors. In the case of detecting any disease, it is not always recommended to suppress sport athlete, but in some cases, simply reduce the burden and labor intensity.