What are the most common allergies?

Written by: Dra. Marisol Hernández Quiles
Published: | Updated: 13/11/2018
Edited by: Ester Izquierdo Romagosa

The allergy is an immune system response that identifies as harmful some substances that usually affects most people. These allergic reactions can be of various types depending on the substance which reacts (allergen) and according to how it is presented, although there are some allergies that are more frequent reason for consultation in Allergology .

respiratory allergies

The main respiratory allergic reactions are:


  • Allergic rhinitis: it is the most common allergy, affecting 25% of the population. Is usually associated with other allergic diseases such as asthma, dermatitis and conjunctivitis and the main symptoms are runny nose, nasal congestion, itchy nose, eyes, ears, mouth and throat, sneezing, among others.
  • Allergic asthma is the second most common allergy and is associated with allergic rhinitis in 80% of cases. It is characterized by inflammation and bronchial obstruction whose symptoms are shortness of breath, coughing and tightness in the chest and dick.


skin allergies

Dermatologic diseases have allergic skin disorders. Among these are:


  • Hives: it is a skin disease characterized by the appearance of hives (bumps) or itchy welts and affects more than 10% of the population at some point in their lives. When deeper parts of the skin is affected, causing inflammation in lips and eyelids, it is called angioedema.
  • Atopic dermatitis is characterized by dry skin that causes intense itching, urge to scratch, redness and eczema (scaling). Most often it affects children, although it can also affect teenagers and adults.
  • Allergic contact dermatitis: is produced by direct skin contact with substances such as perfumes, hair dyes or metals (chromium, cobalt, nickel), among others. by epicutaneous tests is diagnosed, also called patch tests, which consist of applying to the skin (usually on the back) a patch containing 33 different allergens to come into contact with the immune system for 48 hours. After this time, the patch is removed and the reactions that have occurred is analyzed.


Drug allergy

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a heterogeneous group of reactions that occur when taking medications. It should be noted that not all drug reactions mean an allergy, so it is important not to confuse the concepts not consider someone allergic to medicines wrongly.

Thus, any drug can cause an allergic reaction, although the most common are antibiotics penicillin group and anti-inflammatories.

It is important that if you have had a reaction to a drug, the drug name is written down, why it was prescribed, which produced symptoms, how was administered and how long it took the reaction to appear since he took. All this information is very useful for the diagnosis of allergy easier and safer result.


Food Allergies

This allergy can occur at any age and any food. In children, the most common foods are cow's milk, egg and fish, while adults are shellfish, nuts and fruits. Symptoms can be varied, but the most common are:


  • gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting, nausea and abdominal pain)
  • Itching or swelling of lips
  • skin symptoms (urticaria and atopic dermatitis)
  • breathlessness
  • Rhinitis
  • Anaphylaxis (in severe cases)

It is important to identify the causative food to recommend to the patient how to avoid taking. To diagnose it, you need to have a thorough medical history, laboratory and make skin allergy tests and, in some cases, evidence of tolerance or provocation.

Note that not all reactions to food are due to food allergy, as sometimes may be due to other immune mechanisms and sometimes can be intolerance reactions nonallergic base, such as lactose intolerance.


Allergy to insect stings

The most common reactions after stinging bee or wasp are swelling and redness in the area of ​​the bite, although some people may produce more severe symptoms even endanger the patient's life.


Anaphylaxis, the most severe allergy

Anaphylaxis is a generalized allergic reaction that may even endanger the patient's life. Symptoms can vary widely, from skin to respiratory, digestive and cardiovascular, as well as causes, which can be insect bites, allergies to medications or foods, radiocontrast media, or the confluence of several factors.

Identify the cause may be difficult in some cases, so, again, it is important to carefully study the medical history to properly diagnose allergy. It is also important to instruct the patient to use adrenaline or other drugs to control new episodes that may occur in the future.

*Translated with Google translator. We apologize for any imperfection

By Dra. Marisol Hernández Quiles
Allergy & Immunology

Dr. Hernández Quiles is a renowned specialist in Allergology who has almost 15 years experience. A graduate of the University of Alicante, has completed his training in Toledo and has also served on the Public Health as Area Medical Specialist (FEA) at the Hospital Virgen del Valle de Toledo and the Hospital de Alcorcón (FHA) Foundation ( Madrid). During his long career, he has published book chapters, scientific articles and communications to national congresses of the specialty. Expert in child allergy, asthma, rhinitis, food allergies and medications, among other diseases, is currently Head of the Allergy Unit Hospital Virgen del Mar and the Adeslas Medical Center, both in Almería.

*Translated with Google translator. We apologize for any imperfection

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