Craniosynostosis, pathology neurosurgery , cranial deformation is the early closing of a suture. According to the premature closure of the cranial sutures child classification is established.
The craneosinosotosis is premature closure of one or more cranial sutures, which are in charge of the proper cranial growth of the child.
It is congenital, which is present at birth and is evolutionary, behaving a malformation that worsens over the first months of life. Most craniosynostosis are sporadic; however in some cases genetic factors. Metabolic have also been described, positional and iatrogenic factors as possible causes in some cases.
Classification by suture
1. Scaphocephaly or dolichocephaly: early closure of the sagittal suture causing increased anteroposterior diameter of the head, frontal and occipital bulging and 30% of cases may be associated with a neuropsychological disorder. It is the most common.
2. Previous plagiocephaly: Closing the unilateral coronal suture causing a contralateral frontal bulging and retraction ipsilateral fronto-orbital. It is the second most common.
3. Brachycephaly: early closure of both coronal sutures. It can cause stagnation of head circumference and female predominance.
4. Trigonocephaly: Early Closing metopic. It causes a triangular shaped face and bulging biparietal. It can also be associated with genetic alterations.
5. Posterior plagiocephaly: Early Closing the lambdoid suture. Causes an ipsilateral occipital depression avanzamiento the ear on the same side.
6. Oxycephaly: This is a multiple cranosisnostosis by closure of several sutures. Very little recount.
Diagnosis of craneosintostosis
Once the clinical suspicion exists, a radiological test should be performed to confirm the closure of the cranial sutures by X-ray or CT scan head has better resolution while allowing rule out brain abnormalities.
Treatment is quirúrico and must be performed by a specialist in neurosurgery with experience in this type of malformations. Surgery should be performed during the first months of life, usually between 3 and 7 months. Is to open the wide sutured closed (suturectomía or osteotomy) and advancements fronto-orbital unilateral or bilateral involvement if coronal suture or metopic. Sometimes, especially after endoscopic techniques using an external cranial orthotic may be necessary.