Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in the male non - smokers and the third most common. Still, thanks to advances in diagnosis and treatment, prostate cancer can be cured once located.
Depending on several factors presented by the patient, such as age, quality of life, prostate size, tumor marker levels, among others, the specialist in Urology determine a line of study, diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of disease individually.
In all cases, the prostate biopsy includes digital rectal examination and analysis values of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and free PSA, in addition to an abdominal ultrasound, transrectal other, flowmetry, and other tests if necessary.
To make a prostate biopsy, an anesthetic is applied to numb neurovascular prostate fibers and thus take samples transrectal guided by transrectal ultrasound. These extracted samples are analyzed by a specialist in pathology, who provides the urologist a diagnostic impression. It should be noted that a biopsy without suspicion of cancer does not mean that no cancer since the prostate has not yet been analyzed completely, so that an individualized patient monitoring will be established.
Management of prostate cancer
Once diagnosed prostate cancer, the urologist evaluates the conditions of each patient and recommends the most appropriate and most likely successful treatment.
The surgical option, called a radical prostatectomy (removal of the prostate), is one of the most used. To access the treated area, there are several techniques, but the most recommended is minimally invasive, whether the procedure is, as it ensures better conditions and fewer complications.
In minimally invasive surgery, laparoscopic surgery is the most recommended due to its safety, success and recovery. This surgery aims to remove the prostate and seminal vesicles in full and, if possible, preserve the neurovascular bundles, which are responsible for maintaining the degree of posterior continence and produce an erection. It also intends to try laparoscopy carefully pelvic muscles responsible for urinary continence.
While conventional surgery can have complications, such as bleeding, pain or postoperative sequelae, laparoscopic surgery minimizes them, with a decrease in the days of income and recovery.
Aside from surgery, there are other alternatives for the management of prostate cancer, among which are:
- hormone therapy
- external radiation therapy
- Focused ultrasound high intensity (HIFU)
- prostate brachytherapy
- Observation narrow (in specific cases)