Lung cancer is a common malignant tumor and is the leading cause of cancer death in men. It occurs when the normal processes of division and cell growth are altered, making these uncontrollably. That is when a tumor in the lung start appears that can spread and invade adjacent tissues or lymph nodes.
Features lung cancer
It is a type of tumor that is typically characterized by slowness, so that usually occurs in smokers and after 60 years. However, it can also occur in nonsmokers and younger ages.
Also, although there is a slight genetic predisposition, the most important risk factor that cause it is smoking.
Moreover, lung cancer was rare in women, but women smokers have increased the numbers of this type of cancer in females have also done, equaling to those of men.
Lung Cancer Diagnosis
The fact that the lung has no sensitivity makes this type of lung cancer is often asymptomatic with early stages. This makes specialists in Thoracic Surgery conduct periodic reviews diagnosis in patients where there are risk factors (genetic predisposition, snuff, occupational hazards ...).There are some symptoms or affectations, which can alert lung cancer:
- Hemoptysis (bloody sputum)
- Chest pain in contact with pleura, chest wall or diaphragm
- Dyspnea (shortness of breath)
- Cough invasion of the airways (bronchi or trachea)
- Asthenia (fatigue Unexplained)
Also, if there is a nodule, mass chest radiography or chest Tac, you can target specialist in the diagnosis Thoracic Surgery. However, this should always try to confirm bronchoscopy with biopsy or puncture through the chest wall. This biopsy can know the type of cells that make up the cancer, along with the radiological clinical stage of the disease, will allow the most appropriate treatment program.
Lung cancer, depending on the component cells, will be:
- Small or small cell cells (SCLC) is not frequent, rapid progression and rarely surgery.
- Non - small cell (NSCLC), with differentiation to:
- Large cell carcinoma
Moreover, according to the developmental stage, you may be classified as:
- Local. Initial stages I and II. Treatment is primarily surgical, able to completely resect the tumor.
- Regional. stage III. The tumor has spread to the lymph nodes in that area or affect adjacent structures. Treatment usually combined chemoradiotherapy and surgery.
- disseminated. stage IV. There is evidence of metastatic spread to other organs and tissues. The main treatment is chemotherapy, but surgery may be necessary in selected cases.
Treatment of Lung Cancer
The diagnosis should be possible to determine the operability and possibility of tumor resection. All information about the patient's health status will be made known both him and the family, proposing the most appropriate individualized treatment.
The treatment of first choice is still surgery with complete tumor resection. This technique achieves higher cure rate in the early stages and improves the results of chemo-radiotherapy treatment when combined can be used.
Within lung resection, the most common is the lobectomy, which involves resecting the affected lobe. However it is important to have experience in all surgical techniques as sometimes dries only one or two segments, if respiratory function of the patient can not tolerate lobectomy. At other times must resect the entire lung (pneumonectomy) or complex techniques (broncho-angioplasties) are always performed in order to remove the tumor completely and preserve the maximum breathing capacity.
Since 2007 we started the video - assisted surgery (VATS), it has become a minimally invasive technique that allows us, in most cases, make lung resections with small incisions, resulting in less postoperative pain and decreases surgical complications, allowing quick high hospital and patient early incorporation into their daily lives.It should be noted that early diagnosis and complete resection of the tumor and lymph ensure higher survival rates.
Surgery may be supplemented, depending on the stage of the cancer, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or both, always seeking the highest survival rates. Chemotherapy may be given before surgery in locally advanced stages and in some cases of metastasis, or after surgical resection if tumor extension. Instead, radiation therapy is a treatment that specifically kills cancer cells. It may be a primary treatment, surgery combined with chemotherapy or. In advanced cancers it is especially useful because it relieves pain.